Community Engagement Strategies: Lessons Learned from Community-Based Water Services in Cabo Delgado Province, Mozambique 公开

Herjati, Herty (2012)

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Background: The sustainability of water services is a problem in the African continent, even in a
country like Mozambique, which appears to have a strong commitment to improving the health
status of their population, an estimated 30% of hand pumps are not working at any given time
(Bauchman, 2009). It represents an estimated total investment of US$ 1.2 to 1.5 billion, in
addition to the human cost. Community based management water services that apply technology
fit for the purpose and chosen by the user, and financial contributions by users was chosen as the
approach to sustaining water services.
Purpose: This project evaluation was conducted to identify key factors that support sustainability
of a community-based water project of the HAUPA project, Mozambique. Understanding
community members' perspective on the community engagement activities to established
community-based management is the other aim.
Method: Snapshot surveys were used to measure the level of governance elements of
community-based management water services. The communities that had outlier scores were
followed up with interviews. The interviews with community members, water committees and
government officials from the provincial to the village level were conducted to have a complete
picture of the evaluation results.
Result: About 70% of water points built in the HAUPA project areas were well functioning;
however, about 17% of water points were functioning with difficulty, and that could become
nonfunctioning water points if there are no efforts made to repair them. Community mobilization
activities conducted prior to construction of water points may have contributed to high
community participation scores. However, the HAUPA project failed to nurture the community
engagement after the construction finished and services were handed over to the community. The
primary cause of less sustained water projects mat have been due to less transparent and
accountable management, which led to less of a sense of community ownership of the water services. It is crucial to improve the project staff understanding of the different approaches for providing and constructing water services.
Conclusion and Discussion: Two levels of sustainability need to be addressed in community
based management projects: the community and the institution.

Table of Contents

List of Tables. ix

List of Figures. x

List of Acronyms. x

1. Introduction. 1

1.1. Background and Rationale1

1.2. Problem Statement3

1.2.1. The National Water Policy4

1.2.2. The HAUPA Project 5

1.2.3. Evaluation of Sustainability 7

1.3. Study Significance8

1.4. Research Objective9

1.4.1. Specific Aim... 9

1.5. Research Question10

2. Literature Review10

2.1. Concept of The Sustainable Rural Water Services. 10

2.2. The Challenge of Sustainable Water Services. 13

2.3. Individual and Community Level Behavior Changes. 18

2.4. Cultural Competence 22

2.5. Partnership Concept 24

3. Study Design and Method 26

3.1. Rationale of Methodology 27

3.2. Project Sites and Selection of Study Communities. 27

3.3. Field work. 27

3.4. Data Analysis 31

3.5. Strength and Weakness of the Study 32

4. Findings and Results 32

4.1. Descriptive Analysis of Snapshot surveys 32

4.1.1. Technical Aspects 32

4.2. Socio-Economy, Demographic and Administrative Background. 35

4.3. Observation. 38

4.3.1. Types of Water Sources 38

4.3.2. Types of Hand pumps 39

4.4. Interview Findings 42

4.4.1. Governance 43

4.4.2. Community mobilization Activities 49

4.4.3. The Village Water Committee 51

4.4.4. Willingness to pay 52

4.4.5. Rules and Regulation 54

4.4.6. Collaboration and Partnership 55

4.4.7. Project Monitoring and Evaluation 55

5. Discussion. 56

5.1. Sustainability 57

5.2. Partnership. 59

6. Conclusion and RecommendationS62

6.1. Conclusion. 62

6.2. Recommendation 64

References. 65


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