The Wages of Parenthood: At the Intersection of Gender, Child Caregiving, and Sexual Orientation 公开

Demerjian, Sascha Whitehurst (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/f1881m01m?locale=zh
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Abstract

Despite advances made by women in the workplace, mothers have continued to be penalized with regard to job attainment, advancement, and pay. The goal of this project is to disentangle the various aspects at work in this penalty for working mothers by experimentally manipulating characteristics that are contributing to lower expectations for working mothers. For the experiment, I created a vignette where all information presented is identical aside from the manipulated conditions of gender, child caregiving condition, and sexual orientation of fictitious job seekers. After reading this vignette, respondents were asked a series of questions about how they would evaluate the candidate. Results indicate that, among heterosexual parents, primary caregiving parents (both male and female) are evaluated more harshly than secondary caregiving parents. Results also indicate that lesbian secondary caregiving mothers are evaluated more harshly than heterosexual secondary caregiving mothers. A full review of these findings and a discussion of the implications are included.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK, AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1 EXPECTATION STATES THEORY 4 GENDER AND MOTHERHOOD AS DIFFUSE STATUS CHARACTERISTICS 7 CAREGIVING POSITION AS A DIFFUSE STATUS CHARACTERISTIC 10 SEXUAL ORIENTATION AS A DIFFUSE STATUS CHARACTERISTIC 15 THE RELATION BETWEEN RESPONDENT ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT GENDER, CAREGIVING POSITION, AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION 16 CHAPTER II: DATA AND METHODS 23 DESIGN OVERVIEW 23 PROCEDURES AND DATA 26 THE VIGNETTES 27 The Cover Story 28 Caregiving Position Not Indicated 29 Caregiving Position Primary 30 Caregiving Position Secondary 30 SURVEY MEASURES 31 Variables 31 ANALYSIS 36 CHAPTER III: RESULTS 37 MAIN EFFECTS 38 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION INTERACTIONS AND COMPARISONS 41 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS 45 CHAPTER IV: DISCUSSION 49 I: WHY ARE THERE LIMITED MAIN EFFECTS? 51 II: HIDDEN BINDS AND FREEDOMS IN CONTINGENT EFFECTS 57 III: LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 64 TABLES 67 REFERENCES 75 APPENDIX 1: THE VIGNETTES AND SURVEY 83 APPENDIX 2: CORRELATION MATRIX 89 APPENDIX 3: COMPOSITE VARIABLE ANALYSIS 90

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