"The Way Opportunities Unlimited, Inc.": A Movement for Black Equality in Minneapolis, MN 1966-1970 Open Access

Maddox, Camille Venee (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/f1881k98h?locale=en
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Abstract

Following the Minneapolis riot in 1966 on the North Side of the city, an organization was created to meet the needs of blacks on the North Side. The organization listened to the political, social, and economic complaints made by the black community. The organization was "The Way Opportunities Unlimited, Inc." which was located in Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1966-1970. "The Way" was a peculiar enterprise that utilized tenets of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements. Few studies document the history of blacks in Minneapolis and even fewer studies document the existence of "The Way." Through reconstructing the history of "The Way", this thesis provides a background for the development of the Black Power Movement in Minneapolis and establishes the history of blacks in Minneapolis and their place in the larger U.S. Black Freedom Movement. The thesis contains a brief history of the black experience in Minnesota from 1800-1965, an analysis of the 1966 and 1967 riots on the North Side of Minneapolis, and a detailed description of "The Way", its development, its existence, and its legacy.

Table of Contents

PREFACE

i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

v

INTRODUCTION

1

CHAPTER 1: BLACK MINNESOTA 1800-1965

9

BLACK MINNEAPOLIS

14

CHAPTER 2: MINNEAPOLIS RIOTS 1966 AND 1967

23

1966 RIOT

26

1967 RIOT

33

CONCLUSIONS ON RIOT IDEOLOGY

40

CHAPTER 3: THE DEVELOPMENT OF "THE WAY" 1966-1970

42

"THE WAY" AND BLACK POWER

46

"THE WAY" HAD ITS CRITICS

53

"THE WAY" AND POLITICAL ACTIVISM

61

"THE WAY" AND ACADEMIA: THE ROLE OF "THE WAY" IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BLACK STUDIES DEPARTMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA 1966-1969

66

CONCLUSION

73

EPILOGUE: THE DECLINE AND LEGACY OF "THE WAY"

74

APPENDIX

78

BIBLIOGRAPHY

81

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