Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder Open Access

Xiong, Jingran (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/d217qq39s?locale=en
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Abstract

Maternal smoking during pregnancy may be a modifiable risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Existing research on this topic have reported inconsistent findings. We investigated whether maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of ASD compared with children whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy. We analyzed data on 766 ASD cases and 500 controls from the CHARGE study. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected through a questionnaire. ASD cases were identified from the California Department of Developmental Services, referrals from other research studies or health providers, as well as referrals from schools, friends, and families. We used multivariate logistic regressions to examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASD. Maternal race/ethnicity, prenatal vitamin use, payment delivery method and matching variables child's birth year, gender, and regional center were controlled for as confounding factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased odds of ASD compared with children whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 0.89, 2.40). Similar associations were also observed for maternal smoking before pregnancy, in the child's first year, and in the child's second year and later. Maternal active or passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds 1.62 times that of mothers were not exposed to any smoking during pregnancy (95% CI: 1.16, 2.27). Our results suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of ASD compared to children whose mothers did not use tobacco during pregnancy.

Table of Contents

Contents CHAPTER 1 ………………………………………………… 1 Introduction……………………………………………1 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)………… 2 Maternal Smoking…………………………………… 4

Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and ASD…… 6

Summary………………………………………………………… 12 CHAPTER 2……………………………………………………… 16 Introduction…………………………………………………… 16 Methods……………………………………………………………17 Results………………………………………………………………20 Discussion…………………………………………………………22 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………27 APPENDIX ……………………………………………………38 Table……………………………………………………………38 IRB Exemption Letter……………………………………………… …39

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