Movin' on Up?: Gentrification and Homicide in Chicago, IL, 1970 to1995 Open Access

Davis, Tiffany Nicole (2009)

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Movin' On Up? Gentrification and Homicide in Chicago, IL: 1970-1995 By Tiffany Davis This research examines the differential effects of social disorganization on neighborhood homicide rates in Chicago, IL, from 1970 to 1995. The main objectives are to determine whether gentrification influences neighborhood homicide rates, and to account for the structural conditions that contribute to changes in the homicide rates of areas undergoing gentrification compared to those that are not. Since social disorganization theory is the dominant theory for explaining crime rates in neighborhoods, it serves as the theoretical basis for this research on gentrification and homicide. Hypotheses from this theory suggest that different structural processes are occurring in gentrifying neighborhoods compared to non-gentrifying neighborhoods. The effects of residential stability, racial heterogeneity, and economic disadvantage are estimated for three main homicide time-series models- -- all neighborhoods in the city of Chicago, non-gentrifying census tracts alone, and gentrifying census tracts alone. The results suggest that gentrification does not significantly impact the homicide rates in Chicago neighborhoods after controlling for levels of social disorganization; however, indicators of social disorganization do operate differently in gentrifying neighborhoods compared to those neighborhoods that never gentrify. Overall, this study shows that, contrary to the tenets of social disorganization theory, residential stability actually works to increase violence in communities undergoing a social, physical, and economic upgrading.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction and Background pg. 1 Chapter 2. Literature Review pg. 14 Chapter 3. Data and Methods pg. 31 Chapter 4. Results pg. 45 Chapter 5. Discussion and Conclusion pg. 60 Appendices pg. 70 References pg. 73

List of Tables Table 1.1 Black Dissimilarity index for the City of Chicago..................10 3.1 Summary Statistics for City of Chicago.............................40 4.1 Summary Statistics for Gentrified and ..............................46 Non-Gentrified Neighborhoods 4.2 Time-Series Regression Results Predicting Neighborhood .........51 Homicide Rates, Chicago 1970 to 1995

List of Figures Figure 4.1. Average Homicide Rates per 1,000 for all Chicago Tracts...............51

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