Confrontation and the Crucifixion: Another Look at Sacrifice and Atonement Open Access

Copeland, Rebecca Lee (2011)

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In this paper, I examine the elements of sacrifice and sacrificial festivals as
contained in the Hebrew Bible and how these understandings of sacrifice affect both
Christian worshop and understandings of the crucifixion. Then I look at the contributions
that Rene′ Girard and modern anthropological studies have made to our understanding of
the role of sacrifice, and use his hypothesis to reinterpret the stories behind the sacrifices
in the Hebrew Bible. Finally, I synthesize this material in a theory of direct
confrontation, holding that while the crucifixion can be understood to be a sacrifice, our
understanding of sacrifice must change.

Table of Contents


Chapter One: Atonement and the Crucifixion in Current Discussion...7

Chapter Two: Sacrifice and the Hebrew Bible...28

Chapter Three: Sacrifice and Festivals in Christian Understandings of the Crucifixion...38

Chapter Four: Modern Thinkers Re-Imagining Sacrifice...44

Chapter Five: The Stories Behind the Sacrifices in the Hebrew Bible...58

Chapter Six: A Theory of Direct Confrontation and the Crucifixion...65



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