A Process Evaluation of the Food Security Initiative at the Clarkston Community Center 公开

Kane, Rachael Ann (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/bk128b00b?locale=zh
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Abstract

Background: Clarkston is called the most diverse square mile of the U.S due to its high refugee and immigrant population. The city has a poverty rate of 29% and is wedged between two food deserts, contributing to difficult access to affordable, nutritious, culturally relevant foods. The Clarkston Community Center (CCC) aims to combat hunger and access to affordable, nutritious foods through a comprehensive Food Security Initiative (FSI). The main goal of FSI is to increase the percentage of food secure families in Clarkston with independent access to affordable, nutritious, culturally appropriate foods. FSI includes a food pantry, co-operative, community garden, farmers market and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA).

Methods: The purpose of this Masters' thesis was to use process evaluation methodology to understand the challenges and successes that arose as the Clarkston Community Center's Food Security Initiative was implemented. Each program was evaluated for the population reached, recruitment methods used, proportion of program delivered and received (dose) and the extent to which each program was implemented as planned (fidelity). Overall challenges and barriers to implementation are also detailed. A variety of data sources were used to gather this information, including community surveys, program records and meeting notes.

Results: All five programs in the Initiative had difficulty in at least one key aspect of implementation. The food pantry struggled with consistently implementing data collection and fulfilling roles of the organizational partnership. The food co-op had difficulties in sufficiently reaching its target audience. Community gardens lacked information on participant characteristics and quantifiable information on the dose received by members of the CSA was not gathered. Finally, the farmers market struggled to recruit low-income and refugee populations. Despite these challenges, all programs excelled in one or more areas of implementation.

Conclusions: Individual recommendations were made to improve each of the programs, in addition to overall recommendations to quantitatively establish need and baseline information, establish consistent record keeping systems and put in place systems to begin to measure the impact of programs. This evaluation serves as a guide to executing community food security programs and highlights problems that can arise during the process of implementation.

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures........... viii Introduction........... 1 Problem Statement:....... 2 Purpose Statement....... 4 Objectives....... 4 Significance....... 5 Comprehensive Review of the Literature........... 6 Food Security in the United States....... 6 Food Insecurity in U.S. Refugee Populations....... 8 Strategies to Address Food Insecurity- FederalPrograms....... 10 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance in theU.S..... 11 The Special Supplemental Nutrition Programfor Women, Infants and Children (WIC)..... 13 National School Lunch Program..... 15 Community Level Programs....... 16 Food Banks/Food Pantries..... 17 Community Gardens..... 19 Food Co-operatives..... 23 Farmers Markets..... 26 Community Supported AgriculturePrograms..... 29 Clarkston Community Center Food SecurityInitiative....... 31 Methods........... 32 Introduction....... 32 Population and Sample....... 32 Research Design....... 34 Procedures....... 35 Instruments....... 36 Food Co-op:..... 37 Food Pantry:..... 37 Farmers Market:..... 37 Community Gardens & CSA..... 38 Plans for data analysis....... 38 Limitations & delimitations....... 39 Delimitations..... 40 Results........... 41 Introduction....... 41 Findings....... 41 Clarkston Food Pantry..... 43 Clarkston Food Co-operative..... 51 Community Garden..... 62 Farmers Market..... 65 Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)Program..... 71 Summary....... 73 Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations........ 74 Introduction....... 74 Food Pantry....... 74 Pantry Recommendations:..... 76 Food Co-op:....... 77 Co-op Recommendations:..... 78 Community Garden:....... 79 Community Garden Recommendations:..... 80 Farmers Market....... 82 Farmers Market Recommendations:..... 83 Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)....... 84 CSA Recommendations:..... 85 Strengths and Weaknesses of Food SecurityInitiative Programs....... 86 Broader Implications....... 87 Conclusion....... 89 Tables and Figures........... 90 Appendices........... 105 Appendix 1: Additional Challenges in Food Co-operative....... 105 Appendix 2: Rules of Clarkston CommunityGarden Membership Agreement- 2013....... 106 Appendix 3: Executive Summary for Use ByClarkston Community Center....... 107

References........... 112

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