Changjak Gugak as a Symbol of Modern Korean Culture and Tradition Open Access

Kim, Jee Young (2014)

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This thesis examines how a cultural tradition can be reshaped and redefined through the processes of westernization and modernization. It considers the historical, social, and cultural context of Korea that allows for both the maintenance of some traditions while simultaneously adopting and adapting musical practices from the West. Using Korean changjak gugak and gayageum as a medium, this thesis considers how the music represents a complicated cultural fusion. Changjak gugak was developed in Korea in the mid-1960s when the traditional gugak was in decline due to the rising influx and influence of western culture. Korean musicians adopted western concepts of composition and applied them to the traditional gugak. The result was a fusion form. Modifications of the type of instrument, musical texture, compositional framework, and performance practices and settings are all reflected in the changjak gugak. In spite of these changes though, the essential identity of gugak has been preserved in changjak gugak. The adaptations found in changjak gugak raise important questions regarding the tension between tradition and modernity, change and continuity, authenticity and cultural identity. This thesis proposes that such tensions are inherent in the radically evolving global culture of the twentieth century and that Korean changjak gugak represents a fertile subject for cultural and musical analysis.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Audio Examples

Introduction 1

Chapter I. History of Gayageum Music from Sanjo to Changjak Gugak 8

Chapter II. Gayageum, Gayageum Sanjo, and Its Musical Characteristics 20

Chapter III. Distinct Features of Changjak Gugak in Gayageum Music 33

Chapter IV. Changjak Gugak as Gugak 60

Conclusion 73

Glossary 76

Bibliography 79

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