The Relational Individual: On John Dewey, Martha Nussbaum, and Iris Young 公开

Liang, Elbert Keng-Ming (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/b8515p26p?locale=zh
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Abstract

This thesis aims to engage with John Dewey's call for a new individualism: (1) what this new individualism might look like; (2) what purpose it would serve; and (3) how this new individualism informs new notions of freedom. It traces the progression of the idea of a new relational individualism starting from Dewey's work through Martha Nussbaum's "Capabilities Approach" in Frontiers of Justice, to Iris Young's Justice and the Politics of Difference. This paper argues that while Nussbaum is working on the same problems as Dewey, it is not until Iris Young's conception of the individual in Justice and the Politics of Difference that the idea of a fully relational individual is realized. With a fully relational individualism, society can move past the dualism of individual and society to return the pragmatic method of experimentation to social affairs, and once again make social progress; Young's notions of oppression additionally give us guidelines in ensuring democratic legitimacy.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Chapter 1: Dewey's Pragmatic Project 4
1. Introduction 4
2. Experimentation and Nature 7
3. The Individual and Society 10
3.1 The Self-Interested Individual 11
3.2 Opposition against Community 12
3.3 Ideological Effects 13
3.4 The Altruistic Individual 14
4. Individualism and Corporatization 15
4.1 Money Culture 15
4.2 Corporatization 17
4.3 The Business Mind 18
4.4 New Associations 19
5. Individualism Old and New 19
5.1 Individualism Old 20
5.2 Individual/Society 22
5.3 Freedom and Culture 23
5.4 Individualism New 26
6. Conclusion 28
Chapter 2: The Capabilities Approach 31
1. Introduction 31
2. The Social Contract Tradition and Rawls 33
2.1 The Autonomous Individual 35
2.2 The Self-Interested Individual 36
2.3 Veil of Ignorance 38
3. The Capabilities Approach 39
3.1 The Metaphysical Trap 40
3.2 The Altruistic Assumption 40
3.3 Procedure and Outcome 42
4. A Split Individualism 45
4.1 Conflict of Interests 46
4.2 Domination and Oppression 46
4.3 Determined Dualisms 47
5. Conclusion 48
Chapter 3: The Relational Individual 50
1. Introduction 50
2. Individualism and Injustice 52
2.1 Social Groups 52
2.2 Injustice 53
3. The Welfare Capitalist State: Individuals and Society 56
3.1 Welfare Capitalism 57
3.2 Interest Group Pluralism 58
3.3 The Bureaucracy 60
3.4 Insurgency Politics 62
4. Subjectivity and Objectivity: Politics and Science 65
4.1 The Myth of Impartiality 65
4.2 Resource Distribution 67
4.3 The Myth of Merit 68
4.4 Social Groups: Us vs. Them 69
5. The Relational Individual 71
5.1 Heterogeneity and Partial Discourse 71
5.2 Social Groups and Politics 72
5.3 The Ideal of City-Life 73
5.4 Social Groups and Pragmatism 78
5.5 The Dissolution of the Individual 79
6. Conclusion 82
Works Cited 84

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