An Exploratory Analysis of the Risk Factors for Diarrhea and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Odisha, India Open Access

Sola, Steven (Spring 2018)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/b8515n434?locale=en
Published

Abstract

Background: Diarrhea was the eighth leading cause of death among all ages worldwide in 2016, with approximately 1.66 million deaths. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) were the sixth leading cause of death among all ages worldwide in 2016, with approximately 2.4 million deaths. India has the highest number of deaths in the world due to acute lower respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases.

Methods: This analysis was completed based on data collected for a previous study. The goal of the parent study was to assess the combined effects of a household-level piped water and sanitation intervention on the prevalence of diarrhea and ALRI. This study employed a matched-cohort design and included 45 villages in the intervention group and 45 in the control group. Diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infections were recorded as a 7-day self-reported prevalence.

Results: There was a negligible difference in the levels of 7-day diarrhea and ALRI prevalence between the intervention and control villages. There was an increase in the prevalence of diarrhea when people used an unimproved water source versus an improved water source (AOR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.67) and when people don’t have access to a handwashing station (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.57). The data showed that richer families had decreased odds of ALRI (AOR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.91). The type of sanitation (AOR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.44) and type of water source (AOR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.31) were shown to have a negligible effect on the prevalence of ALRI.

Discussion: The biggest limitation in this research was the reliance on self-reported data, especially for the outcomes of interest. Self-reported data is prone to social desirability bias, where the participant is likely to answer the question based on what the researcher wants to hear, rather than the truth. Another limitation to this study is the lack of consideration of microbiological data in the results. Future research should also focus on risk factors specifically for children under the age of five, and should explore if there is any effect measure modification based on other ages.

Table of Contents

Background ……………………………………………………………..……….......……1

 

            Burden of disease ……………………………………………………….......…….1

 

            Potential risk factors for diarrhea …………………………………………........... 2

 

            Potential risk factors for ALRI……………………………………………........... 5

 

Methods………………………………………………………………………...…………7

 

            Study population…………………………………………………………………..7

 

            Outcome definitions ……………………………………………………..………..8

 

            Data collection…………………………………………………………...………..8

 

            Analysis ……………………………………………………………………….....10

 

Results………………………………………………………………………………...….12

 

Discussion………………………………………………………………………....……..18

 

References………………………………………………………………………..………22

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
School
Department
Degree
Submission
Language
  • English
Research field
Keyword
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Partnering Agencies
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files