Estimating acute cardiorespiratory effects of ambient air pollution mixtures translation missing: zh.hyrax.visibility.files_restricted.text

Ye, Dongni (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/9w0323837?locale=zh
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Abstract

Introduction

There is an ongoing effort to identify health-relevant components of ambient air pollution and to estimate combined effects of air pollution mixtures. For Aim 1 and Aim 2, we estimated acute cardiorespiratory effects of a broad range of pollutants that were not well-studied previously, as an attempt to gain a better understanding of causal agents in air pollution. In Aim 3, we estimated joint effects of multiple pollutants on pediatric asthma and compared across cities.

Methods

In a time-series framework, we estimated associations between daily ambient concentrations of air pollutants and daily counts of emergency department (ED) visits using Poisson regression. For Aim 1, daily concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and daily counts of ED visits for cardiovascular diseases and asthma were obtained in Atlanta during 1998-2008. To seek coherence in understanding health effects of a large number of VOCs, we grouped VOCs based on chemical structure and compared different analytic approaches in estimating VOC group effects. For Aim 2, ambient concentrations of PM2.5 metals and daily counts of ED visits for cardiovascular diseases were obtained in Atlanta during 1998-2013. We estimated cardiovascular associations for PM2.5 metals and assessed co-pollutant confounding. For Aim 3, we estimated and compared joint effects of multiple pollutants on pediatric asthma ED visits across four cities (Atlanta, Dallas, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis).

Results

Findings in Aim 1 further support the link between incomplete combustion pollutants and cardiovascular health, and between atmospheric oxidation products and respiratory health. Findings in Aim 2 suggest that certain water-soluble metals (particularly water-soluble iron), or species from roadway emissions, impact cardiovascular health. In Aim 3, joint effects of major pollutants were generally similar across cities.

Conclusions

To understand health effects of pollution mixtures is challenging, given that multiple pollutants could affect a health outcome, pollutants are correlated, and only a subset of pollutants could be measured. Findings in Aim 1 and Aim 2 inform future directions in identifying health-relevant components in air pollution. Aim 3 evaluated the homogeneity of multi-pollutant joint effects across cities, and our findings advance the understanding of the combined effects of air pollution mixtures.

Table of Contents

Introduction..........1

Dissertation Aims..........4

References

Chapter 1: Estimating acute cardiorespiratory effects of ambient volatile organic compounds..........12

Abstract..........13

Introduction..........15

Methods..........16

Results..........22

Discussion..........25

References..........31

Tables..........36

Supplement..........52

Chapter 2: Estimating acute cardiovascular effects of ambient PM2.5 metals..........76

Abstract..........77

Introduction..........79

Methods..........80

Results..........84

Discussion..........87

References..........93

Tables and figures..........100

Supplement..........110

Chapter 3: Joint effect of ambient air pollutants on pediatric asthma in multiple U.S. cities..........134

Introduction..........135

Methods..........136

Results..........140

Discussion..........142

References..........145

Tables and figures..........149

Supplement..........155

Conclusion..........159

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