Characteristic Shifts of the Rectal Mucosal Microbiota associated with Condomless Receptive Anal Intercourse among HIV-Negative MSM Open Access

Pescatore, Nicole Andrea (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/8g84mn140?locale=en
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Abstract

Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 67% of new diagnoses of HIV in the US in 2015. The site of infection among MSM occurs through the rectal mucosa via anal intercourse. However, the effects of condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) on the rectal mucosal microbiota of HIV-negative MSM remain uncertain. In this analysis, the microbial composition of the rectal mucosa of HIV-negative MSM who engage in CRAI will be compared to men who have never engaged in CRAI. Several measures of diversity were assessed and the most abundant genera were identified for both study groups. Furthermore, correlations between genera were calculated. Our results were consistent with previous studies in showing the microbiota of MSM to be enriched with the Prevotella genus, while non-MSM were enriched with the Bacteroides genus. Interestingly, Prevotella was found to be inversely correlated with multiple genera associated with pathogenic bacteria in MSM despite being more prevalent in relation to men who have never engaged in CRAI. There were no significant differences in genus diversity and richness between MSM engaging in CRAI and men who have never engaged in CRAI. These results further characterize the microbial alterations associated with CRAI, provides insight on the role of Prevotella in the rectal mucosa, and will be useful in the methodology of future HIV prevention methods targeted at microbiota.

Table of Contents

Background ...........................................................1

Human Immunodeficiency Virus .................................1

HIV Transmission......................................................3

The Gut Microbiome .................................................4

Introduction ..........................................................8

Scope of the Thesis .................................................10

Materials and Methods .........................................11

Clinical Cohort.........................................................11

Microbiota Sequencing..............................................13

Analyses.................................................................13

Results .................................................................16

Discussion ............................................................19

Tables and Figures ...............................................24

Appendix ..............................................................36

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