Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia Open Access
Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/7d278t62k?locale=en Published
In this dissertation I investigated temporal relationships between
ambient air pollution levels during weeks three through seven of pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular malformations among the cohort of infants and fetuses conceived during January 1, 1986 through
March 12, 2003 in Atlanta, Georgia. Records of infants and fetuses with cardiovascular malformations were obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active,
population-based birth defects surveillance on this cohort. These surveillance records were reviewed to exclude infants with transient newborn conditions and to group infants and fetuses with
similar cardiovascular malformations for analysis. Ambient air pollution measurements of 8-hour maximum ozone and 24-hour average carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter < 10
μm in diameter, and sulfur dioxide were obtained from centrally-located stationary monitors. Temporal relationships between air pollution levels and risk of cardiovascular malformations were
modeled using Poisson generalized linear models. I observed a positive association between particulate matter < 10 μm in diameter and risk of patent ductus arteriosus (risk ratio for
an increase in the interquartile range of the pollutant = 1.60, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.11, 2.31). No other positive associations were observed.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Cardiovascular Malformations
Chapter 3: Ambient Air Pollution
Chapter 4: Methods
Chapter 5: The Importance of Nomenclature for Congenital Heart Disease: Implications for Research and Evaluation
On the Issue of Confounding in Epidemiological Studies of Ambient Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes
Chapter 7: Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in
Atlanta, Georgia, 1986-2003
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