C-reactive Protein Across the Ovarian Cycle in Urban Poor and Urban Better-off Bolivian Women Open Access

Karamali, Mariam Karim (2010)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/6t053g085?locale=en
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Abstract

C-reactive Protein Across the Ovarian Cycle in Urban Poor and Urban Better-off Bolivian
Women

Abstract
By Mariam K. Karamali

C-reactive protein (CRP) is part of the non-specific inflammatory response that provides a glimpse of immune system functioning. Recent research has identified it as a useful biomarker for assessing health status and risk of many chronic diseases. Previous studies have found that CRP fluctuations throughout the ovarian cycle are due to changes in concentrations of various reproductive hormones. The role of life history strategies to explain the relationship between reproductive hormones and CRP remains speculative. Life history theory suggests that environmental stressors play a key role in helping our body to decide how much energy is allocated to vital life functions, such as reproduction and maintenance. It is hypothesized that due to different environmental stressors, Bolivian women will have higher levels of CRP than women in Western populations and that there is a tradeoff between reproduction and maintenance such that as estradiol levels increase, CRP levels will decrease. A survey was administered to women in La Paz, Bolivia and blood spots were collected on 5-6 days of two consecutive ovarian cycles in 30 Urban poor and 31 Urban better-off Bolivian women. The blood samples were assayed for estradiol, progesterone, and CRP. Results showed that urban poor women had higher BMI (P=0.00) and lower levels of estradiol (p=0.02) compared to urban better-off women. BMI is positively associated with CRP (P=0.009) and negatively associated with estradiol (P=0.004). CRP levels are also mediated by BMI. CRP levels in Bolivia were lower than reported values from women in Western populations and CRP did not vary significantly between cycle days or cycle phases, contrary to the hypotheses. CRP differences due to socioeconomic status may be observed with a greater sample size and/or may be due to ecological differences including differences in: histories, inactivity, stress, or diet quality between the two populations. In this sample, CRP is independent of hormonal fluctuations in the ovarian cycle and is shaped by individual lifestyle differences, which may allow it to be a useful biomarker.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
I. Introduction.................................................................................Page 1
II.Methods...................................... ...............................................Page 37
III.Results ......................................................................................Page 50
IV.Discussion...................................................................................Page 66
V.Conclusion .................................... ..............................................Page 85
VI.Reference................................................................................... Page 86


Figures

Figure 1 ..........................................................................................Page 7

Figure 2...........................................................................................Page 53

Figure 3...........................................................................................Page 54

Tables

Table 1.............................................................................................Page 48

Table 2............................................................................................ Page 51

Table 3.............................................................................................Page 52

Table 4.............................................................................................Page 52

Table 5.............................................................................................Page 55

Table 6.............................................................................................Page 56

Table 7.............................................................................................Page 58

Table 8.............................................................................................Page 78

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