HIV and AIDS Curriculum for Adolescents in Nyumbani Village, Kenya Open Access

Duffy, Meghan Curry (2014)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/5138jf09k?locale=en
Published

Abstract

Nyumbani Village, a community located in Kitui County, 180 km East of Nairobi, Kenya, was established by the Children of God Relief Institute in 2006 as a practical and sustainable way to provide a home for over 1,000 children and adolescents orphaned by HIV and AIDS and over 150 senior adults whose adult children had died of AIDS-related causes. However, despite the fact that the Village was created for children and adolescents orphaned by the HIV and AIDS epidemic, many students lack correct and comprehensive information about HIV and AIDS that could assist to alleviate stigma and discrimination. This special studies project develops a curriculum to enhance the HIV and AIDS education the Lawson Secondary School (Form 1- Form 4) and Polytechnic Trade School students currently receive thereby reducing stigma and improving the medication adherence of the adolescents who are HIV-positive. A needs assessment conducted at the Village in the summer of 2013 utilized key informant interviews with staff and focus group discussions with students to generate data on student and staff needs. A thorough review of interactive, faith, and evidence-based HIV and AIDS curricula targeting adolescents as well as participatory learning methods grounded in social cognitive behavior health theory informed the design of the curriculum which consists of three modules (10 sessions). The modules include goals and objectives, interactive activities, additional resources, short films, and an evaluation survey. They will be delivered over school breaks when the children are present in the Village but unengaged in other activities. This project provides insight into gaps in the HIV and AIDS-related education of the students in Nyumbani Village, while providing a unique curriculum that draws on interactive, faith, and evidence based HIV and AIDS curricula to address identified needs in the manner identified as most appropriate by staff and students.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter I: Introduction....................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction and Rationale............................................................................................. 1

1.2 Problem Statement ..................................................................................................... 5

1.3 Purpose Statement ......................................................................................................8

1.4 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 8

1.5 Significance Statement ................................................................................................ 9

1.6 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................10

Chapter II: Needs Assessment Methods and Results .............................................................. 10

2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 10

2.2 Needs Assessment Methods.......................................................................................... 11

Key Informant Interview Methods ...................................................................................... 11

Focus Group Discussion Methods:....................................................................................... 14

2.3 Needs Assessment Results .......................................................................................... 16

Key Informant Interview Data Analysis ............................................................................... 16

Focus Group Discussion Data Analysis ................................................................................ 21

Focus Group Discussion Survey Data Analysis....................................................................... 23

Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussion Overlap ............................................... 26

2.4 Theoretical Framework................................................................................................ 26

2.5 Summary and Relevance............................................................................................. 29

Chapter III: Literature Review ........................................................................................... 29

3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 29

3.2 Evidence-Based Curricula ............................................................................................ 31

Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART).................................................................................. 31

Focus on Youth (FOY) with ImPACT..................................................................................... 32

Street Smart ................................................................................................................. 32

3.3 Evidence-Based Curricula for Adolescents Living with HIV ................................................ 33

Together Learning Choices (TLC) ....................................................................................... 33

3.4 Curricula for Adolescents Living with HIV ....................................................................... 34

3.5 International Curricula for Adolescents Living with HIV and AIDS ....................................... 34

Malawi Teen Club ........................................................................................................... 35

Positive Living for a Brighter Future.................................................................................... 35

Teen Talk: A Guide for Positive Living................................................................................. 36

3.6 International Curricula................................................................................................ 36

Act, Learn and Teach ...................................................................................................... 36

Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP).................................................................. 36

Participatory Learning Activities........................................................................................ 37

Sexuality and Life Skills .................................................................................................. 37

Chill Club ...................................................................................................................... 38

Go Girls!....................................................................................................................... 38

Helping Pupils to Stay Safe .............................................................................................39

It's All One Curriculum....................................................................................................39

Learning for Life ...........................................................................................................39

Life Skills ....................................................................................................................40

Maisha Bora: Empowering Africa's Young People.................................................................40

Our Future....................................................................................................................41

Stepping Stones............................................................................................................41

Tuko Pamoja: Adolescent Reproductive Health and Life Skills Curriculum................................42

Working with Young Women ........................................................................................... 42

Young Men and HIV Prevention ........................................................................................42

3.7 International and Faith-Based Curricula........................................................................ 43

Choose Life...................................................................................................................43

Family Life Education: A Handbook for Adults..................................................................... 43

Family Life Education: Teaching Youth ...............................................................................43

My Life Starting Now: Knowledge and Skills for Young Adolescents .........................................44

3.8 Faith-Based Curricula..................................................................................................45

Youth Ministry in the Age of AIDS .....................................................................................45

3.9 Domestic (U.S.) Curricula ...........................................................................................45 Fresh............................................................................................................................45

Promoting Partner Reduction ............................................................................................46

3.10 Summary and Relevance...........................................................................................46

Chapter IV: Discussion and Recommendations .....................................................................48

4.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................48

4.2 Program Limitations and Implications ...........................................................................48

4.3 Recommendations......................................................................................................53

4.4 Conclusions...............................................................................................................55

References.....................................................................................................................57

Needs Assessment Appendices ..........................................................................................64

Appendix A: Key Informant Interview Tool...........................................................................64

Appendix B: Focus Group Discussion Tool............................................................................68

Appendix C: Map Activity Tool ..........................................................................................71

Appendix D: HIV and AIDS Survey ....................................................................................72

Nyumbani Village Curriculum .............................................................................................1

1. Curriculum Goals and Objectives......................................................................................5

2. How to Use this Curriculum ............................................................................................6

3. Facilitator Notes ...........................................................................................................8

4. Icon Key .....................................................................................................................9

Curriculum Introduction ....................................................................................................10

Module 1 ....................................................................................................................... 12

Session 1: What is HIV? What is AIDS? ............................................................................... 12

Session 2: What does HIV do in the body?............................................................................15

Session 3: Where did HIV begin? How much HIV is in Kenya? ..................................................18

Module 2 ........................................................................................................................21

Session 4: How is HIV spread?............................................................................................22

Session 5: How is HIV prevented? .......................................................................................26

Session 6: What is abstinence? Why should I be abstinent? ......................................................29

Session 7: What is communication? How do I communicate? ....................................................34

Module 3 .........................................................................................................................41

Session 8: Who is at risk of getting HIV? ..............................................................................42

Session 9: How can a person with HIV live healthy? ...............................................................44

Session 10: What can we do for people who are HIV-positive? .................................................48

APPENDICES ................................................................................................................... 53

MODULE 1....................................................................................................................... 54

HIV Replication ............................................................................................................... 55

HIV Timeline................................................................................................................... 57

Stages of HIV.................................................................................................................. 58

Lions and Elephants Game ................................................................................................ 59

Kenya HIV and AIDS Statistics (2012) ................................................................................. 61

MODULE 2...................................................................................................................... 62

The Virus Game .............................................................................................................. 63

Concurrency Web ............................................................................................................ 65

The Risk Game................................................................................................................ 67

Relationship Stories ........................................................................................................ 68

Important Bible Passage .................................................................................................. 69

Assertive Statement Examples........................................................................................... 70

Situation Examples ..........................................................................................................70

Communication Techniques ...............................................................................................71

Five Steps to Resist Peer Pressure...................................................................................... 72

Best Response Game........................................................................................................ 74

My Goals! ...................................................................................................................... 77

A Pat on the Back ............................................................................................................79

Skill Building Activities ..................................................................................................... 80

MODULE 3...................................................................................................................... 82

Stigma and Discrimination ................................................................................................ 83

Sharing Experiences of Discrimination ................................................................................ 84

Crossing the Line ............................................................................................................ 85

Speaker Living with HIV ................................................................................................... 86

Working with HIV-Positive Speakers.................................................................................... 87

Important Bible Passages.................................................................................................. 90

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES ................................................................................................. 91

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) ............................................................................... 92

Common Sexually Transmitted Infections Table.................................................................... 94

Nutrition Information ...................................................................................................... 95

Food Pyramid ................................................................................................................ 96

Important Nutrients Table ............................................................................................... 98

Nutrition Jeopardy ......................................................................................................... 100

We are One Song Lyrics (Music on CD and Flash Drive) ........................................................ 102

Global Dialogues Films (on DVD and Flash Drive)................................................................. 105

Global Dialogues Example Film Discussion Guide.................................................................. 107

Facilitator Tips............................................................................................................... 108

Ways to Encourage Participation ...................................................................................... 108

The Art of Asking Questions ............................................................................................ 109

Responding to Students' Questions.................................................................................... 111

Responding to Students' Responses................................................................................... 112

How to Deal with Difficult Behaviors ................................................................................. 113

Manual Resources Included (on CD and Flash Drive)............................................................. 115

Pre and Post Curriculum Survey ....................................................................................... 121

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
School
Department
Degree
Submission
Language
  • English
Research field
Keyword
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Partnering Agencies
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files