Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the high risk human papillomavirus (HR-
HPV) prevalence and specific risk factors for abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in a human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected population. Additionally, the utility of HPV viral load
using relative light unit (RLU) readings in predicting cervical disease was assessed.
Methods. This is a cross-sectional study with 569 HIV-infected women who were enrolled from
six different cities across the United States. Risk factor analysis was performed using
multivariate logistic regression.
Findings. A total of 486 HIV-infected women were included in this analysis. HR-HPV was
found in 45% of the population with 25% having an infection with type 16 or 18. For the group
as a whole, history of an abnormal Pap smear, CD4 count <200, history of antiretroviral use,
presence of HR-HPV regardless of RLU cut-off, and presence of low risk HPV (LR-HPV) were
found to be risk factors for an abnormal Pap smear. On subgroup analysis of those co-infected
with HR-HPV and HIV, history of antiretroviral use, RLU ≥ 20, CD4 count < 200, history of an
abnormal Pap smear, and infection with more than one HR-HPV type were found to be risk
factors for an abnormal Pap smear. Finally, a strong association between having an abnormal Pap
smear and presence of HR-HPV with an RLU ≥ 20 (RR=55.2) was found.
Conclusions: This study was able to identify important predictors of having an abnormal Pap
smear in HIV-infected women which may help to individualize follow-up and treatment. HPV
viral load as measured by RLU was found to be predictive of cervical disease which could prove
useful in resource poor areas where further testing is not readily available. Finally, only 25% of
those infected with HR-HPV were infected with either 16 or 18. This implies that in HIV-
infected women the vaccine subtypes may need to be broadened.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About this thesis
|Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor|
|Human Papillomavirus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women: A Risk Factor Analysis ()||2018-08-28||