Gender Differentials in Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Attitudes Toward People Living with HIV/AIDS in Egypt Público

Kondos, Leeza Mary (2011)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/3f462574d?locale=es
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Abstract

Background: Recent literature suggests a concentrated epidemic of HIV in Egypt, after decades of reported minimal prevalence. Sociocultural norms and gender constructs create differential access to information, education, and prevention of HIV as well as potential gaps in attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Gender gaps in knowledge reinforce sociocognitive constructs of inequity and combined with current high risk behaviours among most at risk populations (MARP) compromise effective awareness, prevention and care seeking among the general population.
Significance: Findings will be used to enhance current HIV/AIDS awareness and education campaigns. Understanding differential knowledge and attitudes is critical for effective prevention public health campaigns.
Aims: The 2008 Egyptian Demographic Health Survey Data was used in a secondary analysis to quantify relative contribution of gender differences in knowledge of HIV transmission, AIDS perceptions and attitudes toward PLWHA.
Methods: The stratified multi-stage cluster sample included 5,430 men and 6,578 women between ages of 15-59 who met inclusion criteria in 2008. Response rates were high (98% women and 89% men) and only individuals with complete sociodemographic information were included in analysis (final sample: 4,649 men and 4,668 women). Fourteen questions were used to assess knowledge (n=10) and tolerant attitudes (n=4), then analyzed separately, as two summative scores and as dichotomized high versus low scores. Gender gaps in knowledge, attitudes, and sociodemographic variables were assessed. Unadjusted and adjusted gender gaps in extent of knowledge and tolerant attitudes were assessed using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in STATA®.
Results: Overall, men had significantly greater knowledge about HIV transmission. Women had significantly higher levels of tolerance and lower knowledge in all aspects of transmission with the exception of mother to child transmission (delivery and breastfeeding). Unadjusted and adjusted regressions demonstrate robust gaps in knowledge, with women consistently having less accurate knowledge.
Conclusion: There are significant gaps in knowledge in Egypt that are partially explained by demographic characteristics, in particular, by gender. In order to effectively address the HIV/AIDS epidemic, gaps in knowledge by gender need to be understood and appropriately addressed.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

Introductions and Rationale 1

Significance Statement 4

Definition of Terms 4

ETHICS IN RESEARCH 5

CHAPTER 2: COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5

SILENT EPIDEMIC 6

VULNERABLE GROUPS 7

STIGMA 11

GENDER DIFFERENTIAL 16

INADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE & MISCONCEPTIONS 17

SUMMARY& FUTURE IMPLICATIONS 19

CHAPTER 3: MANUSCRIPT 21

Student Contribution 21

Introduction 21

Methods 23

Research Design and Population 23

Instruments 25

Variables 26

Limitations 30

RESULTS 30

Characteristics of Sample Population 30

Gender Gaps in Knowledge about HIV/AIDS 31

Gender Gaps in Stigma Toward PLWHA 32

Multivariate Linear Regression of Covariates with Respect to Knowledge & Attitudes Toward PLWHA 39

DISCUSSION 40

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS 44

Acknowledgements 46

Appendices 48

Appendix A: EDHS Health Questionnaire 48

Appendix B: IRB Approval 72

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