Validation and Characterization of Dried Blood Spots as an Exposure Matrix for Measuring Persistent Organic Pollutants Open Access

Murphy, Anthony (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/37720c791?locale=en
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Abstract

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT),
p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dieldrin, and hexabromobenzene (HBB)
are capable of transplacental and lactational transfer, and may pose a particular health
risk to the developing fetus. Serum is the traditional biological matrix for assessing
exposure to POPs, but has many limitations. Chief among those are the invasive nature
of, and expense associated with collection, storage and analysis. Dried blood spots (DBS)
are a commonly employed method to measure pharmaceutical and tobacco derivatives in
newborns and test for genetic abnormalities such as phenylketonuria. We propose here
that DBS can be used to accurately and precisely quantify DDT, DDE, dieldrin, and HBB
in newborns. DBS are a relatively non-invasive, cheaper, and more practical alternative
to serum for assessing exposure to such toxicants. Employing DBS as a matrix for
assessing in utero exposure also provides an opportunity for retrospective biomonitoring
as well as in assessing multigenerational effects. In order to validate DBS as an exposure
matrix, whole blood and DBS samples were collected from a subset (n=52) of the
Michigan PBB cohort. GC-MS/MS analysis was used to quantify DDT, DDT, dieldrin,
and HBB in both serum and DBS. Method detection limits for DBS were determined to
be 0.082, 0.2, 0.312, and 1.93 ng/spot for DDE, dieldrin, DDT, and HBB, respectively. It
was found that DBS can be used to accurately and precisely quantify DDT, DDE, and
dieldrin (100 ± 20% and <15% RSD). A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement for
DDE showed bias for DDE at ± 2SD, and DBS was observed to be higher in value at the
latter portion of the Bland-Altman plot. However, serum DDE and quantitated DBS DDE
were found to have a high degree of correlation, which demonstrates the potential of this
method; correlation coefficient and associated p-value of 0.95 (p-value <0.0001). Based
on an estimated costs assessment, DBS is approximately 85 times less expensive than
serum using a sample population of 500. Our findings serve to highlight the potential and
relevance of DBS as an exposure matrix for POPs such as DDT, DDE, dieldrin, and
HBB.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Materials and Methods 7
Results 14
Discussion 17
Conclusions 19
Tables and Figures 20
References 34

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