Why Aren't African Americans Donating Blood Given that Sickle Cell Disease is Most Prevalent in this Ethnic Group? Restricted; Files Only

Smith, Sumiko Amelia (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/2j62s565w?locale=en
Published

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: SCD affects approximately 100,000 Americans and occurs in approximately 1 of 365 African American births. More than half of all persons with SCD will require a blood transfusion, and the best match comes from a donor of the same ethnic group. However, the number of African Americans who need blood transfusions from African American donors exceeds the number who donates. The literature identifies some barriers that prevent African Americans from donating, but there are no data on the types of marketing strategies used for recruitment. The aim of this study was to identify barriers that prevent African Americans from donating blood in order to develop appropriate interventions for recruitment.

Methods: This quantitative study was a survey of African-Americans in Charlotte, NC to determine attitudes and behaviors related to blood donation. We recruited 25 participants in a convenience center at a childcare center event. Analysis consisted of chi-square tests to show the relationship between age and donation history, and cross-tabulations to examine demographic predictors of donation history.

Results: Of the 12 participants who had ever donated blood, 75% had donated at least once in the past year, with female, college-educated and respondents in their 30s most likely to donate. The main reasons for donation were to save lives and give back to the community. The primary reason for not donating was never being asked, followed closely by lack of knowledge about blood donation With regards to message delivery preferences, Talking with someone and the Internet were the preferred delivery methods to receive information about blood donation. The use of advertisements and providing educational materials were identified as the main motivators to help increase blood donations.

Conclusion: Preliminary findings suggest that lack of knowledge about blood donation and not being asked to donate may be key obstacles to donation among African Americans. This finding suggests that appropriate messaging strategies are needed to help increase awareness about SCD and blood donation to increase rates among African Americans.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………1

Review of the Literature…………………………………………………………………2

Sickle Cell Disease……………………………………………………………………..2

Health-related Issues and Costs……………………………………………………2

Blood Transfusions…………………………………………………………3

Characteristics of Repeat and Lapsed Blood Donors……………………………….3

Underrepresentation Among African American Donors…………………………...4

Reasons for Underrepresentation…………………………………………………….5

Previous Interventions to Increase Blood Donation Among African Americans……………………………………………………………..7

Recruitment Program…………………………………………………7

The Theory of Planned Behavior………………………………….8

Social Marketing……………………………………………………9

Social Marketing in Blood Donor Management…………………...11

Developing Marking Mix Strategies: The four P's………………..11

Product Strategy…………………………………………………..........11

Price Strategy……………………………………………………............11

Place Strategy………………………………………………….........….11

Promotion Strategy……………………………………………..........11

Summary and Relevance…………………………………………………………….12

Methods………………………………………………………………….12

Sampling and Recruitment………………………………………………………….12

Data Collection……………………………………………………………………….13

Data Analysis………………………………………………………………17

Results…………………………………………………………………………………...18

Discussion……………………………………………………………………………….26

Limitations…………………………………………………………27

Recommendations and Implications………………………………………………..27

References……………………………………………………………………………….30

Appendix………………………………………………………………………………...36

Figure 1. Blood donations among African Americans………………19

Figure 2. Primary reasons that prevented African Americans from donating……………………………………………... 19

Figure 3. Main reasons that motivate participants to donate blood……………………………………………………...20

Figure 4. Most effective groups African Americans are most interested in learning about blood donation from…………………..21

Figure 5. Most effective delivery method for receiving information about donating blood………………………………….22

Figure 6. Knowledge level about SCD……………..22

Figure 7. Barriers that prevent African Americans from donating blood……………………………………………. 23

Figure 8. Motivators to increase blood donations among African Americans……………………………………………....24

Table 1. Explanation of Variables……………………………………………….........15

Table 2. Demographics………………………………………………15

Table 3. Gender/Donation Cross-tabulation…………………………………………25

Table 4. Education/Donation Cross-tabulation…………………………………..….25

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