Factors Associated with Implicit and Explicit Racial Preferences of African Americans translation missing: es.hyrax.visibility.files_restricted.text

Wallace, Bentley Gibson (2014)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/2j62s552t?locale=es
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Abstract

Research has found that approximately half of African Americans show positive implicit in-group (black) preferences and the other half show positive out-group (white) preferences. This study attempts to clarify the factors that are associated with lower in-group positivity among this population than has been documented in European Americans. Explicit and implicit preferences and identity were examined among African American children and young adults. Several potential contributing factors were examined: how strongly individuals identify with their racial group, the impact of racial socialization (parental racial attitudes/behaviors), race composition of school, and socio-economic status. The sample included 216 participants between ages 5-23 (M=15.37, SD =5.73). The sample was separated into two groups, the younger cohort (M=9.09, SD=3.05) and the college student cohort (M=19.85, SD= 1.12). Out of all participants in the younger cohort, 53% attended homogeneous/predominantly black schools. In the college student cohort 42% of the participants attended a racially homogeneous/predominantly black college. The remainder of the college participants attended a racially heterogeneous school. Results showed a lack of an implicit in-group/black preference in the younger cohort confirming our hypothesis and consistent with previous research (Baron & Banaji, 2009; Newheiser & Olson, 2012). This study contradicts previous findings of a lack of an implicit in-group bias in an older sample of African Americans (Nosek, Banaji, & Greenwald, 2002; Livingston, 2002; Ashburn-Nardo, Knowles, & Monteith, 2003; Richeson, Trawalter, & Shelton, 2005), as we provide evidence of an implicit preference in favor of their in-group in the college sample. In terms of implicit identity, both children and adults more readily associated black faces with words about the self than white faces. In general, the African Americans in this study held an explicit, pro-black preference and identity that showed positive associations with age. This study provided evidence of correlations between explicit and implicit measures; it also suggested that above and beyond the racial composition of schools, African Americans' racial preferences and identity can be predicted by the specific types of racial socialization messages they have received about racism and about the social status of their in-group.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Study.................................................................................................................................1

History of Studying Racial Preferences with Explicit Measures...............................................................................4

Implicit Measures of Racial Preferences.............................................................................................................5

Evidence of an In-group Bias...........................................................................................................................9

Evidence of an Abscence of an In-group Bias....................................................................................................14

Importance of Studying Development..............................................................................................................20

Children's Understanding of Cultural Knowledge Regarding Group Social Status.....................................................22

The Impact of School Racial Make-up on Racial Preferences................................................................................26

The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Racial Preferences of Stigmatized Groups...............................................28

The Relationship between Socio-economic Status and Racial Preferences.............................................................30

Overview of Hypotheses................................................................................................................................31

Method.......................................................................................................................................................34

Participants.................................................................................................................................................34

Procedure...................................................................................................................................................34

Measures....................................................................................................................................................35

Analysis Plan...............................................................................................................................................39

Results.......................................................................................................................................................42

Younger Cohort Implicit Preferences...............................................................................................................42

College Students' Implicit Preferences ........................................................................................................ .....47

Comparison of Younger Cohort and College Students' Implicit Preferences and Identity.........................................49

Younger Cohort Explicit Preferences................................................................................................................51

Younger Cohort Explicit Identity.....................................................................................................................52

College Students' Explicit Preferences.............................................................................................................53

College Students' Explicit Identity...................................................................................................................55

Comparison of Younger Cohort and College Students' on Explicit Preferences & Identity.........................................56

Relationships between Implicit Preferences and Implicit Identity.........................................................................57

Relationships between Explicit Preferences and Explicit Identity..........................................................................58

Relationship between Explicit and Implicit Measures..........................................................................................58

Comparison of College Students by School Type on MEIM..................................................................................58

Discussion..................................................................................................................................................59

References.................................................................................................................................................75

Appendix...................................................................................................................................................89

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