Pesticides are pervasively used in Thailand to ensure a productive crop yield and to keep the agricultural sector economically competitive in the global food market. With regular application, pesticides tend to enter the watersheds and soils where they persist for long periods of time resulting in community-wide, low-level, chronic pesticide exposure. Children are especially vulnerable to the health risks of chronic pesticide exposures even at low doses since these highly reactive chemicals are very likely to chemically interfere with their early stages of growth and development during in utero and postnatal periods. This study aims to evaluate possible pathways of insecticide exposure and to assess baseline exposures in the community in Ubon Ratchathani farms, most of which are involved in chili production. Our findings indicate that several pesticides are frequently found in the local water systems. Chlorpyrifos appears at higher levels in reservoir and drinking water than in ground water, although not statistically significantly higher. p,p'-DDE is found in all waters at approximately equivalent levels. Most other pesticides were found in 10-78% of the water samples tested. Similarly, urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos and permethrin metabolites were found in virtually all of the farmer urine samples tested with mean concentrations ranging from 2-5 ng/mL. These data suggest that exposure to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides is pervasive in this farming region of Thailand and that water may be an important pathway of exposure for which mitigation strategies can be implemented.
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sample Preparation and Analysis...11
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...25
About this Master's Thesis
|Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor|
|Assessing Environmental Pesticide Exposures in Chili Farming Communities of Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand ()||2018-08-28||