Parallel Narratives in Exodus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and the Identification of Pre-Priestly Material in the Pentateuch Open Access

Germany, Stephen (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/1z40kt20r?locale=en
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Abstract

The fundamental aim of this dissertation is to contribute to a more nuanced diachronic evaluation of the non-priestly narrative material in the Pentateuch through a critique of the presumed temporal priority of "D" texts over "P" texts in the classical Documentary Hypothesis and the related assumption that the narratives known by "D" are pre-priestly. To this end, it reconsiders the extent of pre-priestly and post-priestly material in four texts in Exodus and Numbers with parallels in the book of Deuteronomy: (1) the revelation of the law at Sinai (Exod 19-24 // Deut 5:1-6:3); (2) the incident of the golden calf and its aftermath (Exod 32-34 // Deut 9:7-10:11); (3) the episode of the spies (Num 13-14 // Deut 1:19-46); and (4) the people's journey from Kadesh to the plains of Moab (Num 20:1-22:1 // Deut 1-3* // Judg 11:12-28). Rather than using the "D" version as a benchmark for identifying pre-priestly material in these narratives, the present study begins with a literary-critical and macrocontextual (i.e., intertextual and conceptual) analysis of the main narratives in Exodus or Numbers, including an evaluation of the extent of potentially pre-priestly material in those narratives. This is followed by a separate literary-critical analysis of the parallel version in Deuteronomy (and in one case also in Judges) and finally by an evaluation of the literary relationship between the parallel texts. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the extent of potentially pre-priestly narrative material in Exod 19-24; 32-34 and Num 13-14; 20:1-22:1 (as well as in the parallels to these texts in the book of Deuteronomy) is more limited than most prior studies have acknowledged. Such a conclusion challenges the position of the classical Documentary Hypothesis that priestly literature stands substantially at the end of the formation of the Pentateuch as well as the assumption that the book of Deuteronomy developed largely in isolation from priestly literature.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.............................................................1

CHAPTER 2: THE REVELATION OF THE LAW AT SINAI...........................6

2.1. Literary-critical analysis of Exod 19-24.........................................6

2.2. Macrocontextual analysis of Exod 19-24.....................................22

2.3. Literary-critical analysis of Deut 5:1-6:3.....................................50

2.4. Comparison of Exod 19-24 and Deut 5:1-6:3..............................58

2.5. Result....................................................................................61

CHAPTER 3: THE GOLDEN CALF AND ITS AFTERMATH.........................63

3.1. Literary-critical analysis of Exod 32-34.......................................65

3.2. Macrocontextual analysis of Exod 32-34.....................................90

3.3. Literary-critical analysis of Deut 9:7-10:11...............................112

3.4. Comparison of Exod 32-34 and Deut 9:7-10:11.........................121

3.5. Result..................................................................................132

CHAPTER 4: THE STORY OF THE SPIES...........................................134

4.1. Methodological prolegomena...................................................134

4.2. Literary-critical and macrocontextual analysis of Num 13-14.......137

4.3. Literary-critical analysis of Deut 1:19-46..................................152

4.4. Comparison of Num 13-14 and Deut 1:19-46............................156

4.5. Result..................................................................................163

CHAPTER 5: THE JOURNEY FROM KADESH TO THE PLAINS OF MOAB...166

5.1. Priestly and post-priestly material in Num 20:1-22:1..................167

5.2. Israel's detour around Edom (Num 20:14-21)............................169

5.3. The defeat of Sihon and Og (Num 21:21-35).............................174

5.4. The Mosaic retrospective in Deut 1-3*......................................181

5.5. Jephthah's speech in Judg 11:12-28.........................................204

5.6. Comparison of the textual parallels..........................................207

5.7. The itinerary reports (Num 20:1, 22; 21:4a, 10-20; 22:1)..........228

5.8. Result..................................................................................244

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION............................................................245

6.1. The theoretical problem and a proposed solution.......................245

6.2. Findings of the investigation...................................................247

6.3. Broader implications for the formation of the Pentateuch............251

6.4. Summary.............................................................................259

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................261

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