Forestalling Doom: "Apotropaic Intercession" in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East 公开

Broida, Marian W. (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/1j92g7669?locale=zh
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Abstract

This dissertation studies the direct discourse in selected biblical and ancient Near Eastern texts in order to compare the agency of intercessors attempting to avert divinely decreed doom, or what can be called "apotropaic intercession." Eleven narratives from the Hebrew Bible (including, e.g., Abraham's intercession on behalf of Sodom, and Moses's intercessions after the incident of the golden calf), two namburbis (Neo-Assyrian rituals against omens of disaster), and two rituals from Anatolia against unfavorable omens (the rituals of Huwarlu and Papanikri) are analyzed. Using speech act theory, rhetorical criticism, and a definition of magical speech drawn from cognitive science, I distinguish three types of agency in the direct discourse within this corpus: "ritual agency," "magical agency," and "persuasive agency." In some of these texts speakers accomplish their goals by following formulae understood to be effective if properly executed ("ritual agency"). In other cases, certain speech acts purport to accomplish things impossible with ordinary speech, such as transforming figurines into sentient beings ("magical agency"). This magical speech was understood to require divine assistance and sometimes imitated speech of the gods themselves. Finally, in yet other instances, the texts rely on "persuasive agency." This last type is the only kind of human agency evident in the biblical accounts.

The kinds of rhetoric differ among the texts examined. The biblical intercessors typically protest the divine decision, while the ritual texts often use persuasive analogies: speech acts which simultaneously (1) petition the gods to transform the situation and (2) act directly in magical ways. The different kinds of rhetoric reflect different implicit or underlying theologies. The Mesopotamian and Hittite texts present intercessors using speech acts understood to have originated with the gods. The intercessors step into divine roles with the gods' permission and help. The biblical stories, in contrast, eschew the use of magical and ritual agency. Instead, biblical intercessors confront the deity with initiative, courage, and rhetorical skill--traits theoretically available to all humanity--in order to counter doom.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction. 1

1.1. Corpora Compared. 2

1.2. Research Questions. 3

1.3. Definitions. 4

1.4. Background Beliefs. 12

1.5. Approach to Comparison. 15

1.5.1. Issues Related to Cross-Genre Comparison 19

1.6. Approach to Magic. 24

1.6.1. Definitions of Magic. 24

1.6.2. Jesper Sørensen's Cognitive Theory of Magic 26

1.6.3. Prayer vs. Incantation. 31

1.7. Approach to Speech. 33

1.7.1. Speech Act Theory. 35

1.7.1.1. Application of Speech Act Theory to Ritual and Magical Speech. 42

1.7.2. Rhetorical Analysis. 49

1.7.2.1. Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. 52

1.7.2.2. Chaïm Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca 54

1.7.2.3. Application of Rhetorical Analysis to Ritual and Magical Speech. 56

1.8. Analytic Procedure. 59

1.9. Summary. 63

2. Apotropaic Intercession in Mesopotamia 65

2.1. Introduction. 65

2.1.1. Background Information on the Namburbis. 69

2.1.2. Selected Research on Oral Rites in the Namburbis 74

2.1.2.1. Walter G. Kunstmann. 74

2.1.2.2. Richard I. Caplice. 76

2.1.2.3. Werner Mayer77

2.1.2.4. David P. Wright79

2.1.2.5. Stefan M. Maul 80

2.1.2.6. Summary of Relevant Scholarship 82

2.2. Analysis of Apotropaic Intercessory Speech in Two Namburbis 84

2.2.1.Text 1: KAR 64 Lines 10-58. 85

2.2.1.1. Overview of Ritual85

2.2.1.2. Speech Act and Rhetorical Analysis of Direct Discourse in Text 1. 85

2.2.1.2.1. Transcription and translation of first oral rite 85

2.2.1.2.2. Speech act analysis of first oral rite 87

2.2.1.2.3. Rhetorical analysis of first oral rite 90

2.2.1.2.4. Transcription and translation of second oral rite 97

2.2.1.2.5 Speech act analysis of second oral rite 98

2.2.1.2.6. Rhetorical analysis of second oral rite 99

2.2.1.2.7. Transcription and translation of third oral rite 101

2.2.1.2.8. Speech act analysis of third oral rite 102

2.2.1.2.9. Rhetorical analysis of third oral rite 106

2.2.1.2.10. Transcription and translation of fourth oral rite 107

2.2.1.2.11. Speech act analysis of fourth oral rite 108

2.2.1.2.12. Rhetorical analysis of fourth oral rite 108

2.2.1.2.13. Text 1 analysis: summary and conclusions 109

2.2.2. Text 2: LKA 112. 110

2.2.2.1. Overview of Ritual 110

2.2.2.2. Speech Act and Rhetorical Analysis 111

2.2.2.2.1. Transcription and translation of the prescribed oral rite. 111

2.2.2.2.2. Speech act analysis 113

2.2.2.2.3. Rhetorical analysis 115

2.2.2.2.4. Text 2 analysis: summary and conclusions 124

2.3. Analysis of the Links to the Supernatural 125

2.4. Analysis of Evidence for Presumed Efficacy 130

2.5. Summary and Conclusions. 133

3. Apotropaic Intercession in Anatolia 142

3.1. Introduction. 142

3.1.1. Background Information on Anatolian Religions 148

3.1.1.1. The Persuasive Analogy in Texts from Anatolia 154

3.1.1.2. Summary and Conclusions 156

3.1.2. A Note on Hittite Grammar: The Third-Person Imperative 158

3.2. Apotropaic Intercessory Speech in Text 3: Ritual of Huwarlu (CTH 398) 161

3.2.1. Overview of Ritual with Transliteration and Translation of Oral Rites 161

3.2.2. Speech Act and Rhetorical Analysis of Text 3 172

3.2.2.1. Speech Act Analysis of Text 3 172

3.2.2.1.1. First oral rite (CTH 398 i 13-18) 172

3.2.2.1.2. Second oral rite (CTH 398 i 23b-26) 174

3.2.2.1.3. Third oral rite (CTH 398 i 44b-46) 175

3.2.2.1.4. Fourth oral rite (CTH 398 i 50-54) 175

3.2.2.1.5. Fifth oral rite (CTH 398 i 58-60) 177

3.2.2.1.6. Sixth oral rite (CTH 398 i 66-70) 178

3.2.2.1.7. Seventh oral rite (CTH 398 ii 8b-13a) 179

3.2.2.1.8. Eighth oral rite (CTH 398 ii 17b-23) 180

3.2.2.1.9. Ninth oral rite (CTH 398 ii 31b-35) 181

3.2.2.2. Rhetorical Analysis of Text 3 182

3.2.2.2.1. First oral rite (CTH 398 i 13-18) 183

3.2.2.2.2. Second oral rite (CTH 398 i 23b-26) 185

3.2.2.2.3. Third oral rite (CTH 398 i 44b-46) 186

3.2.2.2.4. Fourth oral rite (CTH 398 i 50-54) 186

3.2.2.2.5. Fifth oral rite (CTH 398 i 58-60) 187

3.2.2.2.6. Sixth oral rite (CTH 398 i 66-70) 188

3.2.2.2.7. Seventh oral rite (CTH 398 ii 8b-13a) 189

3.2.2.2.8. Eighth oral rite (CTH 398 ii 17b-23) 190

3.2.2.2.9. Ninth oral rite (CTH 398 ii 31b-35) 190

3.2.2.3. Text 3 Analysis: Summary and Conclusions 191

3.3. Apotropaic Intercessory Speech in Text 4 193

3.3.1. Overview of Relevant Portions of Text 4 193

3.3.2. Speech Act and Rhetorical Analysis of Text 4 195

3.4. Analysis of Links to the Supernatural 198

3.5. Analysis of Evidence for Presumed Efficacy 200

3.6. Summary and Conclusions 201

4. Apotropaic Intercession in the Hebrew Bible 206

4.1. Introduction. 206

4.1.1. Selection of the Corpus 206

4.1.2. Background Information: Divination, Intercession, Apotropaic Intercession 208

4.1.2.2. Intercession 211

4.1.3. Selected Research on Biblical Intercession 213

4.1.3.1. Franz Hesse 213

4.1.3.2. Yochanan Muffs 214

4.1.3.3. Patrick D. Miller 216

4.1.3.4. Michael Widmer 216

4.1.3.5. Conclusions Regarding Selected Research on Biblical Intercession 217

4.2. Analysis of Direct Discourse in Apotropaic Intercessory Texts 5-15 219

4.2.1. Text 5: Gen 18:23b-32a 219

4.2.1.1. Speech Act Analysis 220

4.2.1.2. Rhetorical Analysis 222

4.2.2. Text 6: Exod 32:11b-13 226

4.2.2.1. Speech Act Analysis 227

4.2.2.2. Rhetorical Analysis 228

4.2.3. Text 7: Exod 32:31b-32 232

4.2.3.1. Speech Act Analysis 233

4.2.3.2. Rhetorical Analysis 233

4.2.4. Text 8: Num 14:13b-19 237

4.2.4.1. Speech Act Analysis 238

4.2.4.2. Rhetorical Analysis 239

4.2.5. Text 9: Num 16:22 243

4.2.5.1. Speech Act Analysis 243

4.2.5.2. Rhetorical Analysis 244

4.2.6. Text 10: Deut 9:26-29 247

4.2.6.1. Speech Act Analysis 247

4.2.6.2. Rhetorical Analysis 248

4.2.7. Text 11: Ezek 9:8b 250

4.2.7.1. Speech Act Analysis 251

4.2.7.2. Rhetorical Analysis 251

4.2.8. Text 12: Ezek 11:13b 255

4.2.8.1. Speech Act Analysis 256

4.2.8.2. Rhetorical Analysis 256

4.2.9. Texts 13 and 14: Amos 7:2, 5 257

4.2.9.1. Speech Act Analysis 258

4.2.9.2. Rhetorical Analysis 258

4.2.10. Text 15: 1 Chr 21:17 (cf. 2 Sam 24:17) 263

4.2.10.1. Speech Act Analysis 263

4.2.10.2. Rhetorical Analysis 264

Excursus: An Example of Nonverbal Apotropaic Intercession in the Hebrew Bible 269

4.2.11. Texts 5-15 Analysis: Summary and Conclusions 273

4.2.11.1. Speech Act Analysis 273

4.2.11.2. Rhetorical Analysis 275

4.3. Analysis of Evidence for Efficacy of Apotropaic Intercession 280

4.4. Summary and Conclusions 286

5. Summary and Conclusions 290

5.1. Summary of Previous Chapters 290

5.2. Comparative Analysis 294

5.2.1. Goals and Objectives of Direct Discourse in Apotropaic Intercession 294

5.2.2. Strategies Used to Persuade the Gods 297

5.2.3. Two More Views of Efficacy 304

5.2.3.1. Ritual Efficacy 305

5.2.3.1.1. General ritual efficacy 305

5.2.3.1.2. Magical ritual efficacy 306

5.2.3.1.3. Rhetorical efficacy 307

5.2.3.2. Rhetorical Impact of the Texts on Human Audiences 309

5.2.3.2.1. Views of the deities 311

5.2.3.2.2. The approach to causative and ritual speech in the Hebrew Bible 315

5.2.4. Agency 321

5.3. Theoretical Implications 326

5.3.1. Magic 326

5.3.2. Mystification of Agency 330

5.3.3. Toward an Emic Rhetoric 333

5.4. Conclusion 334

Bibliography 336

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