Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Specific Parenting Practices, and Broad Dimensions of Parenting: Factor Structure, and Measurement, Structural, and Prediction Invariance Open Access

Hackett, Ryan Christopher (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/1544bp27m?locale=en
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Abstract

When questionnaire scales are used in an analysis, it is assumed that their psychometric properties are invariant across key grouping variables (Millsap, 2011). If this assumption, known as measurement invariance, is violated, phenotypic group differences can be confounded by measurement differences, and relations with external variables can be estimated inaccurately (Millsap, 2011). Despite the importance of measurement invariance, it is rarely examined in the parenting and psychopathology literature. Prior research has suggested small-to-moderate relations between parenting and youth antisocial behavior in samples that varied widely in sex and age, with little examination of sex or age invariance (e.g., Hoeve et al., 2009). This study evaluated the factor structure, and sex and age measurement, structural, and prediction invariance of the Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report (M-CRPR, Rickel & Biasatti, 1982), which measures parental responsiveness and psychological control, Supervision/Involvement scale (S/I, Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber, & Van Kammen, 1998), which measures parental involvement and oversight, and Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale (EDRS, Waldman et al., 1998), which measures DSM-IV symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The M-CRPR, S/I, and EDRS ODD scales demonstrated near complete measurement and structural invariance in separate sex and age multigroup invariance analyses. The EDRS CD scale demonstrated item threshold invariance in multiple-indicators-multiple-causes (MIMIC) analyses (Joreskog & Goldberger, 1975). All relations between parenting and disruptive behavior were invariant and small-to-moderate in magnitude. These findings add confidence to prior research relying on these measures to examine parenting influences on child disruptive behavior.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

General Introduction 1

Measurement, structural, and prediction invariance 3

Tools for testing factor structure and invariance 6

Factor structure and psychometric invariance of ODD 7

Factor structure and psychometric invariance of CD 10

Factor structure and psychometric invariance of parenting 12

The current study 15

Method 18

Sample 18

Measures 19

Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report 19

Supervision/Involvement Scale 19

Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale 21

Analysis 21

Estimation method 21

Goodness-of-fit 23

Factor analysis and measurement/structural invariance 24

Factor analysis 25

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance 26

MIMIC measurement/structural invariance 27

Structural equation modeling 28

Results 29

Factor analysis and measurement/structural invariance 29

Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report 29

Factor analysis 30

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance across sex 31

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance across age 32

Supervision/Involvement Scale 32

Factor analysis 32

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance across sex 34

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance across age 34

Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - ODD 35

Factor analysis 35

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance across sex 37

Multigroup measurement/structural invariance across age 38

Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - CD 39

Factor analysis 39

MIMIC measurement/structural invariance: Sex and age 42

Structural equation models 43

Broad parenting dimensions predicting ODD 43

Nurturance and Restrictiveness: Sex invariance 43

Nurturance and Restrictiveness: Age invariance 43

Specific parenting practices predicting ODD 44

Monitoring, Direct Supervision, and Involvement:

Sex invariance 44

Monitoring, Direct Supervision, and Involvement:

Age invariance 45

All parenting variables predicting ODD 46

All parenting variables: Sex invariance 46

All parenting variables: Age invariance 48

Broad parenting dimensions predicting CD 49

Specific parenting practices predicting CD 50

All parenting variables predicting CD 51

General Discussion 52

Parenting scales 53

Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report 53

Supervision/Involvement Scale 55

Disruptive behavior disorder scales 57

Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - ODD 57

Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - CD 59

Parenting as a predictor of the DBDs 61

Predicting ODD 62 Predicting CD 64

Strengths & limitations 67

Future directions 70

References 72 Tables 91

Table 1 - Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report:

Exploratory ESEM goodness-of-fit statistics 91

Table 2 - Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report: Initial measurement

models 93

Table 3 - Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report best model comparisons:

ESEM vs. CFA 97

Table 4 - Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report: Measurement and structural

invariance across age and sex 98

Table 5 - Modified Child-Rearing Practices Report: Final ESEM measurement

models 99

Table 6 - Supervision/Involvement Scale: Exploratory ESEM

goodness-of-fit statistics 102

Table 7 - Supervision/Involvement Scale: Initial measurement models 104

Table 8 - Supervision/Involvement Scale best model comparisons: ESEM vs.

CFA 107

Table 9 - Supervision/Involvement Scale: Measurement and structural invariance

across sex and age 108

Table 10 - Supervision/Involvement Scale: Final ESEM measurement

models 109

Table 11 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - ODD: Factor analysis goodness-of-fit

statistics 112

Table 12 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - ODD: Initial measurement

models 114

Table 13 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - ODD: Measurement and structural

invariance across sex and age 116

Table 14 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - ODD: Final CFA measurement

models 118

Table 15 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - CD: Factor analysis goodness-of-fit

statistic 120

Table 16 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - CD: Alternative measurement

models 122

Table 17 - Emory Diagnostic Rating Scale - CD: MIMIC model with sex and age
main effects 124

Table 18 - SEM of ODD, broad parenting dimensions, and specific parenting

practices: Goodness-of-fit statistics 125

Table 19 - SEM ODD, broad parenting dimensions, and specific parenting

practices: Prediction invariance 127

Table 20 - SEM of CD, age, sex, broad parenting dimensions, and specific

parenting practices 129


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