The Politics of Peace: Ephesians, Dio Chrysostom, and the Confucian Tradition Open Access

Lau, Te-Li (2008)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/0c483k26f?locale=en
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Abstract

This dissertation examines the topos of peace in Ephesians by comparison with Colossians, Dio Chrysostom's orations, and the Confucian classics; and shows that Ephesians can be read as a politico-religious letter Concerning Peace within the church.

The study unfolds in six chapters. Beginning with a feasibility study grounded on key exegetical terms and motifs, the first chapter surveys prior research and lays out the task, assumptions, and guidelines of this project. Chapter two compares Ephesians with Colossians, demonstrating how their differences and similarities at both the macro and micro level affirm the prominence of the topic of peace in Ephesians. Building on the work of chapter two, chapter three investigates the political character of Ephesians and summarizes its vision of peace. Together, chapters two and three argue that Ephesians can be read profitably as a political discourse on peace.

Chapter four examines the vision of peace in Dio Chrysostom's orations, and chapter five the Confucian classics. Chapter six then puts the three visions of peace--the Ephesian, Dionic, and Confucian--in conversation with one another, analyzing their understanding of the nature of peace and the elements that undergird their vision. Through comparison with analogous political documents both within and without the cultural milieu of Ephesians, chapters four to six refine our portrait of the Ephesian vision of peace. Chapter six also concludes with a summary exploring the implications of this study.

Table of Contents

  1. Chapter 1 Introduction to the Task........................................................................................................................ 1
    1. History of Investigation............................................................................................................................... 8
      1. Commentary tradition.................................................................................................................. 10
      2. Eberhard Faust........................................................................................................................ 12
      3. Ann Holmes Redding....................................................................................... 16
    2. The Task................................................................................................................... 19
    3. Assumptions and Guidelines.................................................................................... 27
      1. Ephesians is authentic.................................................................................... 27
      2. Emphasis on the rhetorical character............................................................ 30
      3. Comparison of Ephesians vis--vis Colossians................................................ 31
      4. Comparison of the vision of peace in the orations of Dio Chrysostom and Ephesians .. 34
      5. Comparison of the vision of peace in the Confucian classics and Ephesians 35
    4. Summary and Looking Ahead................................................................................. 4
  2. Chapter 2 Comparison of Ephesians with Colossians................................... 42
    1. Narrative of Alienation and Reconciliation............................................................. 48
    2. Paul's Apostolic Ministry of the Mystery................................................................ 57
      1. The will of God ............................................................ 58
      2. The gospel ............................................................................ 60
      3. The mystery ........................................................................... 61
    3. The "In Christ" Phrase............................................................................................. 64
    4. Body of Christ.......................................................................................................... 72
    5. Use of Scripture in Ephesians.................................................................................. 76
      1. Ephesians 2:17................................................................................................. 77
      2. Ephesians 4:8-10............................................................................................. 79
      3. Ephesians 4:25-26a......................................................................................... 81
    6. Trinitarian Formulas................................................................................................ 83
    7. Love.......................................................................................................................... 89
    8. Summary.................................................................................................................. 92
  3. Chapter 3 The Political in Ephesians.................................................................. 95
    1. Jew-Gentile Reconciliation: One New Humanity................................................... 101
      1. Ethnic tension and enmity between Jews and Gentiles............................... 103
      2. Pauline strategies to relieve ethnic tension................................................. 107
    2. Call to Unity (4:1-16)............................................................................................ 119
      1. Concord and discord in Eph 4:1-16............................................................... 122
      2. Appeals to "ones": The unity of divine beings, and things in common..... 128
      3. Appeals to the political unit as a body and to common advantage............ 131
    3. Ethics and Politics.................................................................................................. 134
      1. Communal ethos........................................................................................... 136
      2. Education and imitation............................................................................... 140
      3. Communal harmony and peace.................................................................... 146
        1. Greed............................................................................................. 146
        2. Justice ........................................................................................... 149
        3. Walk in love ...................................... 151
    4. The Household....................................................................................................... 154
      1. Oikos motif in the Hellenistic-Roman world................................................ 154
      2. Political character of the Ephesian household motif and household code.. 159
      3. Function of the household codes in Ephesians............................................ 164
    5. War and Politics..................................................................................................... 171
      1. Warfare in Ephesians..................................................................................... 174
        1. Martial imagery and politics................................................................ 176
        2. War and peace...................................................................................... 179
    6. Summary and Synthesis........................................................................................ 185
  4. Chapter 4 The Vision of Peace in Dio Chrysostom........................................ 191
    1. The Kingship Orations............................................................................................. 196
      1. Portrayal of the ideal king............................................................................. 200
      2. The education of a king................................................................................ 210
      3. The Kingship Orations and concord............................................................... 215
    2. The Concord Orations Delivered in Bithynia........................................................ 221
      1. Concord between cities................................................................................. 221
      2. Concord within a city.................................................................................... 229
      3. The rationale for concord............................................................................. 234
    3. Synthesis and Overview......................................................................................... 242
      1. Political persona............................................................................................ 242
      2. The nature of concord.................................................................................. 246
      3. Elements in Dio's vision of peace.................................................................. 248
  5. Chapter 5 The Vision of Peace in The Confucian Four Books...................... 253
    1. The Daxue............................................................................................................... 258
      1. The Daxue and the Role of Confucian Education.......................................... 259
      2. Three Guiding Principles............................................................................... 264
      3. Eight Particular Steps................................................................................... 270
        1. Self-cultivation..................................................................................... 274
        2. Governing others.................................................................................. 277
    2. The Zhongyong........................................................................................................ 280
      1. Elements of the Way of Heaven.................................................................... 282
      2. Confluence of the Way of Man and the Way of Heaven.............................. 288
        1. The role of the mind in cultivating the Way...................................... 291
        2. The role of rites in cultivating the Way.............................................. 296
    3. Synthesis and Overview......................................................................................... 306
      1. Brief comparison of the Daxue and the Zhongyong....................................... 306
      2. Confucian understanding of the nature of peace........................................ 308
      3. Elements in the Confucian vision of peace.................................................. 312
  6. Chapter 6 Comparing Visions of Peace............................................................. 320
    1. Three Visions of Peace........................................................................................... 320
      1. Nature of peace............................................................................................. 321
      2. Nature of Dionic peace......................................................................... 321
      3. Nature of Confucian peace................................................................... 323
      4. Nature of Ephesian peace..................................................................... 327
    2. Elements in the three visions of peace......................................................... 332
      1. Appeals for peace and their frame of reference.................................. 333
      2. Sequence for implementing the vision of peace................................. 339
      3. Central operative principle.................................................................. 343
      4. Balancing and reimagining hierarchy.................................................. 347
    3. Implications of this Study..................................................................................... 349
  7. Appendix........................................................................................................................ 361
  8. Bibliography............................................................................................................... 367

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