Women's Empowerment and Livestock-focused Livelihoods in Pastoral Communities in Northern Kenya Open Access

Roach, Timmie (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/02870w76n?locale=en
Published

Abstract

Abstract

Women's Empowerment and Livestock-focused Livelihoods

in Pastoral Communities in Northern Kenya

By Timmie Roach

Introduction: Pressures from increased population size, climate change, and economic development within low-income countries have caused many pastoralist societies to begin to transition from nomadic to more sedentary livelihoods [1-3]. This transition has led to detrimental effects on maternal and child health among women and young children in East Africa [4-6]. Women play a critical role in food provision and production as well as food practices and culture for their families. Thus, a key factor in achieving improved health outcomes for women and children is understanding the socio-cultural, economic, and environmental drivers of change in their health status. This paper will examine women's empowerment in the context of livestock-focused livelihoods within pastoral communities in Northern Kenya.

Methods: Cross-sectional, participatory qualitative research was conducted in Northern Kenya from May through August 2016 in Marsabit and Isiolo counties. A total of 66 focus group discussions, each 10-12 participants, were conducted at the ward level. Sites in Marsabit County included Karere Town, Laisamis, Korr, Turbi, Sololo and Butiye. Sites within Isiolo County included Burat, Kinna, Oldonyrio, Merti, and Ngaremara. Detailed summaries derived from women's empowerment FGDs were read, segmented, and coded by two independent coders using MaxQDA Qualitative Analysis Software.

Results: Women's empowerment was defined as the ability to provide for oneself and one's family. There were gendered differences in women's decisions regarding agricultural production, access and control over resources, and control and use of income within nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentary community types. Women's autonomy in production was limited for livestock however autonomy in production for livestock products was strong. For semi-nomadic and nomadic communities, location played a significant role in women's access to and control of opportunities as well as their workload and control over time. Increased workload, intimate partner violence, and social stigma were identified as potential adverse consequences of increased women's empowerment.

Conclusion: Quantitative data alone is insufficient for measuring women's empowerment. While quantitative tools can assess patterns, the underlying attitudes and behaviors that contribute to those patterns are missed. Qualitative assessment in conjunction with quantitative measurement is required for filling gaps in women's empowerment research.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction and Rationale ……………………………..………………………………...…...1

1.2 Problem Statement …………………………………….……………………….………..……1

1.3 Purpose Statement ……………………………………….………………………………..…..1

1.4 Research Question ………………………………………………………………………...….1

1.5 Significance Statement …………………………………………………………………….….1

1.6 Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………………...2

Chapter 2

2.1 Pastoralism in Kenya …………………………………………………...…………………….4

2.2 Women's Empowerment ……………………..………………………………………………5

2.3 Livestock-focused Livelihood Interventions …………………………………………………9

2.4 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………...………………...13

Chapter 3

3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………......………………...14

3.2 Population and Sample …………………………………………………….…………...…...15

3.3 Data Collection …………………………………………………………….…...…………...15

3.4 Ethics and Informed Consent ………………………………………………..……………...16

3.5 Data Analysis ………………………………………………………………...……………...16

Chapter 4

4.1 Women's Empowerment ………………………………………..……………………...…...18

4.2 Access to and Control of Productive Resources ……………...………………………...…...21

4.3 Control Over and Use of Income ……………………………………….….…………...…...24

4.4 Access and Control of Opportunities ……………...……………………….…………...…...24

4.5 Workload and Control Over Time ……………...…………………………….………...…...26

4.6 Potential for Adverse Consequences ……………...……………………….…………...…...27

4.7 Seasonality and Climate Change ……………...……………………………………….........28

Chapter 5

5.1 Discussion ……………...…………….…………………………………………….…...…...29

5.2 Limitations ……………...…………………………………………….………………...…...31

5.3 Public Health Implications………………………………..…...………………………...…...32

References

Appendix

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
School
Department
Degree
Submission
Language
  • English
Research field
Keyword
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Partnering Agencies
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files