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What precipitates violence? A longitudinal study of the initiation, cessation, and continuation of physical intimate partner violence within marriage in rural India

Bourey, Christine (2013)
Master's Thesis (88 pages)
Committee Chair / Thesis Adviser: Stephenson, Robert
Committee Members:
Research Fields: Health Sciences, Public Health; Health Sciences, Epidemiology
Partnering Agencies: Does not apply (no collaborating organization)
Keywords: English; India; intimate partner violence; determinants; empowerment; functional autonomy
Program: Rollins School of Public Health, Hubert Department of Global Health
Permanent url: http://pid.emory.edu/ark:/25593/cxh1x

Abstract

Background: In India, the reported lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) exceeds 34% among women of reproductive age. Despite growing attention to IPV and its determinants, few consistent associations have emerged as targets for intervention. Heterogeneity may reflect methodological limitations, including reliance on cross-sectional studies and limited consideration of temporal patterns of violence within relationships. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the determinants of physical IPV in rural India by addressing these methodological limitations. Method: A prospective cohort study collected in 1998-99 and 2002-03 was used to investigate determinants of changing experiences of IPV in rural households (4749 married women) in four states: Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. Changes between baseline and follow-up and inter-survey events were evaluated as triggers for changing IPV using a multinomial regression model fitted to a categorical outcome measuring the absence (reference), initiation, cessation, and continuation of IPV. Results: Measures of functional autonomy (freedom of movement, financial autonomy, employment, and relative female economic contribution) and reproductive roles (unwanted pregnancy, ceasing to be childless, and child death) were associated with altered risk for changing experiences of IPV. Conclusion: Direct measures of functional autonomy were associated with decreased IPV risk, suggesting that social norms may support increased functional autonomy for women. The fulfillment of reproductive roles was associated with decreased risk, whereas adverse events were associated with increased risk. These findings suggest that empowerment may decrease IPV risk by increasing functional autonomy and creating alternative pathways for developing social capital, status, and power.

Table of Contents

Chapter I: Introduction.................................................................................................................................................. 1 -- Objectives and Aims................................................................................................................................................. 2 -- Intimate Partner Violence in India............................................................,.................................................................. 2 -- Chapter II: Comprehensive Review of the Literature...................................................................................................... 6 -- Prevalence............................................................................................................................................................... 6 -- Health Consequences................................................................................................................................................. 7 -- Table 1. Health outcomes associated with domestic violence, India......................................................................... 10 -- Determinants.......................................................................................................................................................... 15 -- Table 2. Determinants of male-perpetrated IPV, worldwide.................................................................................... 15 -- Table 3. Quantitative studies of male-to-female physical IPV, India......................................................................... 19 -- Table 4. Determinants of male-to-female physical IPV, India.................................................................................. 20 -- Theoretical Perspectives............................................................................................................................................ 23 -- Gaps in the Literature............................................................................................................................................... 27 -- Chapter III: Manuscript.................................................................................................................................................. 30 -- Background............................................................................................................................................................. 36 -- Methodology............................................................................................................................................................ 38 -- Results.................................................................................................................................................................... 42 -- Discussion............................................................................................................................................................... 44 -- References............................................................................................................................................................... 47 -- Appendix A: Tables.................................................................................................................................................... 54 -- Table 1. Background characteristics of women in rural Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu, 1998-2002 -- (N=4749)........................................................................................................................................................ 54 -- Table 2. Changes experienced from baseline to follow-up by women in rural Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and -- Tamil Nadu, 1998-2002 (N=4749)...................................................................................................................... 56 -- Table 3. Events experienced during the inter-survey period by women in rural Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and -- Tamil Nadu, 1998-2002 (N=4749)...................................................................................................................... 58 -- Table 4. Multinomial regression analysis for variables predicting changes in IPV experienced by women in rural Bihar, -- Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu, 1998-2002 (N=4749)............................................................................. 59 -- Chapter IV: Conclusions and Recommendations.............................................................................................................. 61 -- Public Health Implications........................................................................................................................................... 61 -- References...................................................................................................................................................................... 66

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