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Laney Graduate School

Rollins School of Public Health

Candler School of Theology

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Analytical Methods for Pesticides in Food and Residential Dust

Hunter, Ronald (2009)
Dissertation (191 pages)
Committee Chair / Thesis Adviser: Ryan, P Barry
Committee Members: Conticello, Vincent ; Lynn, David ;
Research Fields: Health Sciences, Public Health; Chemistry, Analytical
Keywords: multi-residue methos; GC-ECD; pyrethroid pesticides; organophosphorus pesticides; pesticide residue analysis; exposure;
Program: Laney Graduate School, Chemistry
Permanent url: http://pid.emory.edu/ark:/25593/1fw0m

Abstract


Abstract
Analytical Methods for Pesticides in Food and Residential Dust
By Ronald E. Hunter, Jr.
Due to widespread use of agrochemicals, such as organophosphorus (OP) and pyrethroid
pesticides, Americans are exposed to insecticides via food and dust ingestion daily. Upon
the extraction of house dust and commonly consumed foods, researchers have
demonstrated the prevalence of OP and pyrethroid pesticides in these matrices. Despite
advancements in pesticide residue analysis of food and residential dust, there is still a
need for the further development of economical, high-throughput, rapid, multi-residue
methods. Via these methods, researchers can investigate insecticidal dietary exposure of
small populations by introducing innovative sample compositing techniques, such as
categorizing and compositing food samples by food type ( e.g. fruit and above- or below-
ground vegetables). Consequently, we recognized that regularly consumed foods and
house dust contain measurable quantities of OP and pyrethroid pesticides, developed
analytical methods for quantifying amounts of these pesticide residues in food and
residential dust, and applied methodologies to relative samples collected from a
population of 12 in a pilot study endeavoring to assess persons' total pesticide exposure
to three OP and four pyrethroid pesticides. This is important because there is (1) a
shortage of multi-residue methods for food and house dust, (2) an increased consumption
of imported food in the U.S., (3) a harmful effect of insecticides at all stages of life, and
(4) a need to obtain limits of detection ≤ those used in Food and Drug Administration
surveillance programs because researchers are observing pesticide metabolites in part per
trillion levels in urine.

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ACRONYMS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
A Short History of Pesticide Use in the U.S 2
Pesticide Regulation in the U.S 7
Types of Pesticide and Use 14
General Pesticide Biomarker Information 21
Pesticide Exposure from Beverages, Food, Soil, and Residential Dust 24
Reasons to Care about Exposure 30
Analytical Chemistry of Pesticide Monitoring of Food 34
References 49

CHAPTER 2: METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-RESIDUE PESTICIDE EXTRACTION FROM FOOD
Introduction 56
Materials and Methods 60
Results 66
Discussion 70
References 75
Appendix 2A: Methodologies Assessed for Pesticide Residue Analysis 78
Appendix 2B: Physical and Chemical Properties of Pesticides 110

CHAPTER 3: ORGANOPHOSPHORUS AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN COMPOSITE DIET SAMPLES FROM ATLANTA, USA ADULTS
Introduction 125
Materials and Methods 127
Results and Discussion 134
References 149

CHAPTER 4: METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-RESIDUE PESTICIDE EXTRACTION FROM RESIDENTIAL DUST
Introduction 153
Materials and Methods 158
Results 164
Discussion 167
References 170

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
Conclusions 174
Future Development 178

Files

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