Distribution and Determinants of Dengue Fever, Cities of Jeddah and Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2007 - 2013 Open Access

Alshamrani, Sultan (2015)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/zw12z5485?locale=en



Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) is an infectious disease spread by the bite of the female mosquito, Aedes aegypti. It occurs mainly in urban, tropical cities and presents as a febrile illness, but in some patients (e.g., with co-morbidities), it can progress to death. Recently, outbreaks of DF have increased in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), especially in the port city of Jeddah and the holy city of Makkah. To better understand the rise in incidence rates (IRs) of DF, we analyzed DF cases reported to the Ministry of Health (MoH) from Jeddah and Makkah between 2007 - 2013.

Methods: Case reports from the KSA MoH for the years 2007 - 2013 included demographic, clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information. A growth factor was applied to census data obtained from the Central Department of Statistics and Information (CDSI) used to estimate population sizes. Yearly IRs were then calculated and stratified by nationality and gender.

Results: In the six-year study period >65% of all cases were from Jeddah. In each year the number of cases in Jeddah was higher than in Makkah except 2009. The IRs in those two cities varied significantly during the study period. In Jeddah, the IR of non-Saudis was generally greater than that of Saudis, and vice versa in Makkah. In both cities, the IR of males was greater than females. In both cities, individuals aged 15-45 years had the greatest number of cases.

Discussion: The IR of males was greater than that of females and the proportion of individuals aged 15-45 years was consistently greater in both Jeddah and Makkah. Active public health surveillance, developing a comprehensive education campaign, enhancing mosquito control, and conducting follow-up case-control studies to evaluate the effectiveness of public health prevention and control efforts seems appropriate.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction...1
Chapter 2: Literature Review...6
Chapter 3: Manuscript...16
Chapter 4: Conclusions and Recommendation...26

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