Within Patch Effects of Pine Biofuel Cultivation on Bee Pollen Carrying Behavior Open Access

Lawley, Brice Edward (2015)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/zc77sq66t?locale=en


Biofuels have become a key source for fuel globally as we move away from fossil fuel use. The US has created mandates which seek to increase fuel produced from biofuels, and the Southeast is a prime source area for biofuel development. Land use change required for increased biofuel cultivation may have negative impacts on biodiversity. This study explores how one critical component of diversity, bees, will be impacted. I observe bees' interactions with flowering plants via changes in pollen carrying behavior within a variety of conditions resulting from traditional vs biofuels-oriented practices concerning pine plantations. I used pollen carrying behavior to understand: 1) If bees were foraging for food successfully and 2) If bees were pollinating plants successfully. I found that open area conditions promoted high foraging success with low pollination success while covered area conditions promoted low foraging success with high pollination success. By implementing a biofuels regime to meet fuel needs, alternating states of poor foraging for bees and poor flowering plant reproduction will result. This will lead to a decline in reproduction for both bees and pollinator-dependent plants.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Methods 4

Overview 4

Site Selection 4

Sampling Transect 6

Aerial Net Sampling 7

Pan Trap Sampling 7

Pollen Carriage 8

Sub-sampling for Further Analysis 8

Pollen Collection from Bees 9

Classifynder Slide Preparation 9

Classifynder Imaging and Morphological Data of Pollen 10

DNA Barcoding 10

Data Analysis 11

Results 13

Overview 13

Pollen Presence/Absence 13

Pollen Load Composition-The Classifynder 15

Pollen Load Composition-DNA Barcoding 16

Comparison to Overarching Project 18

Discussion 20

Conclusion 24

References 26

Table 1 6

Table 2 15

Table 3 16

Table 4 17

Table 5 17

Table 6 19

Figure 1 14

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