Correlates of Bystander Intentions to Intervene regarding Sexual Harassment by Relational Distance to Perpetrators in a Jordanian University Open Access

Zwooqar, Ahad (Summer 2020)

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Background: Sexual harassment (SH), defined as discriminating behavior based on a person’s sex, causes poor physical and mental health among survivors. During college, women’s risk of harassment increases and can impact academic performance. Bystander interventions have shown effectiveness in reducing sexual violence among college students. This study explores students’ willingness to intervene to stop SH in a large urban campus in Jordan

Methods: A systematic sample of male (n=223) and female (n=568) students attending randomly selected general education classes were surveyed as part of a larger mixed-methods study on SH. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses examined the associations between helping intentions by relational distance to a group of perpetrators and personal, cultural, and environmental factors.

Results: Higher sense of responsibility, knowledge to help a SH survivor, perception of school’s ability to handle instances of SH, and wasta (social connections) were associated with students’ intention to stop SH when perpetrators are strangers. School connectedness was associated with students’ intention to intervene when the perpetrators are friends. Gender inequitable attitudes were negatively associated with students' willingness to intervene.

Implications: Interventions designed to promote bystander behavior may need to employ approaches that consider different mediators and address students concerns to intervene based on bystander-perpetrator relationship.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Literature Review

 Overview of Sexual Harassment

 Sexual Harassment in the Arab World

 Sexual Harassment on College Campuses

 Life Course of Bystander Research

 Bystander Interventions

 Bystander Interventions on College Campuses

 Informal Social Networks and Helping Behavior

 Theory of Triadic Influence

Chapter 3: Manuscript






    Strengths & Limitations

    Conclusion & Implications



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