Evaluation of Reported Cases of the Hepatitis B Infection, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2014 – 2018 Open Access

Alabdulmunim, Abdulhakim (Spring 2020)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/s1784n04d?locale=en


Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a significant global health concern, especially in nations such as the Kingdom Saudi Arabia (KSA), which experiences a large number of infectious ailments coupled with the lack of effective protection measures. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reported cases of HBV in KSA between 2014 – 2018. This study should help policymakers and program planners in the implementation of appropriate interventions to monitor HBV through improving public health surveillance (PHS).

Methods: Data from the Ministry of Health (MoH) National Hepatitis Program (NHP) and the General Authority for Statistics in KSA were analyzed by year, gender, nationality, region, and age group. Mann-Whitney testing determined if there was a significant difference between two independent groups. If the p-value was < 0.05, there was a significant difference at the 95% confidence level (CI).

Results: There were 26,136 reported cases of HBV during the 5-year period 2014 – 2018. In 2014, the incidence rate (IR) of HBV was 14.2 (95% CI=13.8, 14.6) per 100,000 population compared with a significantly increased 22.2 (95% CI=21.7, 22.7) in 2018. Gender (p-value= 0.421) was not significant but Saudi versus non-Saudi was (p-value= 0.008). The greatest number of reported cases was found among those 15 – 44 years of age, followed by those > 45 years of age. Variations of IRs of HBV across regions were found; Makkah with the highest.

Conclusions: Despite the immunization program, HBV remains a significant health threat in KSA. The KSA MoH should strengthen public health surveillance (PHS) to monitor and evaluate the risk of the disease across the nation. Public health stakeholders and decision-makers should shift their attention to preventive mechanisms that will reverse the trend of rising HBV cases, hence achieve public health goals.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 –Introduction 1

Chapter 2 – Literature Review 5

 Chapter 3 – Manuscript 12 Methods 15

Results 16

Discussion 22

Chapter 4 – Conclusion and Recommendation 25

References 28

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