Comparative Analysis of Four Intraclass Correlation Coefficient Estimation Methods on Continuous Outcomes in a Survey Study Open Access

Wu, Ruoming (2016)

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This study aimed to compare methods of estimating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) on continuous outcomes in survey research utilizing cluster sampling. Analysis was performed on the dataset obtained from the Power Up for 30 program, which measured all elementary schools from different school districts in Georgia. Grade level teachers completed surveys regarding students' physical activities. ICCs were calculated for responses from each survey question at the district level and the school level using four methods: the ANOVA approach, the random intercept approach, the GEE approach and the design effect approach. The result indicated that different ICC estimation methods led to various results. ICC estimates obtained using the design effect approach greatly diverged from ICC estimates obtained using the other approaches. For all survey questions, ICC estimates at the school level were greater than that at the district level, suggesting that responses toward all questions exhibited greater consistency among different grade level teachers at the school level, compared to at the district level. Future studies should consider ICC estimation methods that take into account the non-normality of the dataset. Also, average number of respondents should be consistent at the district and the school level.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

2 Methods 4

2.1 Dataset 4

2.2 Statistical Methods 4

2.2.1 The ANOVA Estimator 4

2.2.2 The Random Intercept Model Approach 5

2.2.3 The Generalize Estimating Equations Approach 6

2.2.4 The Design Effect Approach 6

2.3 Computation 7

3 Results 8

3.1 District Level 10

3.2 School Level 10

4 Discussion 12

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