Climate Change and Sedentarization among Pastoralists in Morogoro and Tanga Regions of Tanzania: Impacts on Health and Nutrition Open Access

Ripkey, Carrie (Spring 2019)

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Pastoralists are undergoing rapid shifts in livelihood strategies, from predominantly highly-mobile pastoralism to an increase in agro-pastoralism in which both livestock raising and cultivation of crops are practiced. This shift away from mobile to more sedentary livelihoods is a process referred to as sedentarization. Previous research indicates that both sedentarization and climate change are prominent forces shaping livelihood approaches in East Africa, but the effects of these co-occurring processes have yet to be investigated.

This paper develops theory, grounded in qualitative data, explaining the relationships between climate change, pastoral sedentarization, livelihood outcomes, and resulting nutritional status. Data examined in the development of this theory was collected through focus groups and key informant interviews among pastoralists in Morogoro and Tanga Regions of Tanzania, using a grounded theory approach.

Results indicate that the co-occurring processes of climate change and sedentarization among Tanzanian pastoralists in these regions have dramatic impacts on communities’ economic prosperity, health status, and nutritional outcomes. Due to the risks posed by climate change and sedentarization pressures, land tenure policies that allow them to continue to practice highly mobile livelihood strategies, namely, legal recognition of collective land rights, need to be adopted. Legal recognition of collective rights will help abate further reduction of natural capital and the cascading effects that come with such losses. 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction pg 1

Context of the Project pg 1

Problem Statement pg 2

Specific Aims pg 3

Purpose pg 3

Chapter 2: Comprehensive Review of the Literature pg 4

Pastoralism pg 4

Sedentarization Pressures pg 5

Impacts of Sedentarization on Nutrition and Health pg 8

Impacts of Climate Change on Nutrition and Health pg 10

Adaptations pg 11

Remaining Gaps pg 12

Chapter 3: Manuscript pg 14

Introduction pg 15

Methods pg 18

Study Population pg 18

Study Design pg 20

Data Analysis pg 21

Ethical Considerations pg 23

Results pg 23

Climate change negatively impacts pastoral livelihoods through a cascade of effects on natural and financial capital pg 25

Pastoralists have adopted a range of coping strategies in response to the effects of climate change and sedentarization pg 29

Coping strategies in response to climate change have impacted human and social capital pg 37

Conclusions pg 40

Discussion pg 42

Future Recommendations pg 42

Limitations pg 44

Acknowledgments pg 45

References pg 46

Chapter 4: Conclusion and Recommendations pg 52

Conclusions pg 52

Policy Recommendations pg 53

Programmatic Recommendations pg 55

Research Recommendations pg 57

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