Developing an Online, Asynchronous Course on WASH in Healthcare Facilities Restricted; Files Only

Schoendorf, Emily (Spring 2023)

Permanent URL:


Background: In 2021, 1.7 billion people globally were served by healthcare facilities (HCF) that lacked basic water services, putting them at greater risk of infection when receiving care. Though knowledge about the need for safe hygiene practices to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients has existed for centuries, it was not until 2015 that the alarm was raised globally regarding the lack of adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in HCF. Seeing a need to educate practitioners on the implementation of sustainable WASH in HCF programming, the Center for Global Safe WASH (CGSW) at Emory University has offered a course on WASH in HCF for distance learners since 2020. Course facilitators are seeking to restructure the course so it can be delivered asynchronously to reach a wider network of WASH practitioners. The purpose of this special studies thesis is to develop the content for CGSW’s new asynchronous course offering: WASH in Healthcare Facilities 101: Introductory Short Course.

Methods: Developing the content of WASH in Healthcare Facilities 101: Introductory Short Course involved reviewing the original CGSW distance learning course materials, meeting with course facilitators to determine what materials should be kept, removed, added, or enhanced, and applying best practices for asynchronous adult learning.

Results: The content developed for the new asynchronous WASH in HCF is laid out in four modules consisting of 12 lessons and approximately 180 slides. Each lesson introduces a learning objective, delivers core learning material, and concludes by reiterating key messages related to the learning objective. Activities, reflection questions, and assessments are included within each module for effective adult learning.

Discussion: Malcolm Knowles’ six principles of andragogy were applicable to the design of the new modules, and each principle was integrated within the course. Through the process of designing the new course, it became clear that reach and accountability are among the major barriers to achieving the vision for every HCF globally to have basic WASH services. The course addresses these barriers by providing a flexible asynchronous format to encourage broader course participation and emphasizes accountability and leadership as overarching themes.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Background on Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Healthcare Facilities 1

Health Implications of WASH in HCF 2

Global Action on WASH in HCF 3

Background on the Center for Global Safe WASH 5

Purpose Statement 6

Chapter 2: Literature Review 7

Introduction 7

Overview of E-learning and Asynchronous Courses 7

Innovations in E-learning 8

Application of E-learning in Health Education 13

Andragogy 14

Strategies for Effective Instruction in E-learning 18

Internet and E-Learning Globally 22

Conclusion 23

Chapter 3: Methods 2

Introduction 24

Materials 24

Population 27

Planned Deliverables 27

Revision Process 28

Ethical Considerations 29

Chapter 4: Results 30

Overview 30

Module 1 31

Module 2 34

Module 3 37

Module 4 39

Chapter 5: Discussion 42

Application of Knowles’ adult learning principles 42

Accountability and reach in WASH in HC 44

Conclusion 45

Annex A: Salient Features of Slides 46

References 48

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
  • English
Research Field
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Last modified Preview image embargoed

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files