Sexual Violence and Pro-Government Militias Open Access

Avera, Margaret (2017)

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This research studies wartime rape perpetrated by pro-government militias, using the principal-agent theory to attempt to explain variation in the level of sexual violence. Principal-agent theory provides a model for understanding how restraints function to regulate a pro-government militias use of sexual violence. Principle-agent theory is applied to cross-national data on pro-government militia sexual violence and armed group characteristics. This research builds upon previous work, which found that measures of state strength were correlated with prevalence of sexual violence. Literature from studies on resources and political violence is used to illustrate how material support serves as an accountability mechanism. This research shows that material support is a condition of the principal-agent relationship that is an important control the principal actor has over the capabilities of the agent. It is argued that sexual violence occurs as a crime of opportunity that is committed by agents with fewer constraining mechanisms. This article finds evidence that the source of material support is a factor that could effect the likelihood that a pro-government militia engages in sexual violence. The relationship between funding and sexual violence is taken as evidence that conditions under which sexual violence perpetrated by pro-government militias are those where the group is able operate with greater independence from state control.

Table of Contents

I. Introduction page 1 II. Literature Review page 4 III. Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses page 13 IV. Data and Methods page 24 V. Results and Discussion page 26

1) Regression Summary page 31-32

2) Descriptive Statistics page 32

3) Frequency Tables page 32

4) Sexual Violence Graphs page 33

VI. Illustrative Case Studies page 33 1) Background of the War page 36 2) Conflict Diamonds page 40 3) Discussion page 49 VII. Conclusion page 53

1) Bibliography page 60

2) Appendix 1 page 62

3) Appendix 2 page 63

4) Appendix 3 page 64

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