Pre-Hispanic and Colonial Period Aymara Ceremonial Garments of Bolivia and Peru: Structure and Significance Restricted; Files Only

Burian, Shelley (Spring 2019)

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This dissertation presents a comprehensive survey of men’s tunics (qhawa) and women’s mantles (isallu) from Aymara-speaking communities (warami) in modern Perú and Bolivia dating from the Late Intermediate Period through the early nineteenth century, comprehending classification according to Aymara terminology, an outline of stylistic development, and an analysis of the garments’ significance in both the pre-Hispanic and post-Conquest periods. Through colonial-era primary sources and the results of current ethnographic fieldwork, the garments and their substyles are described according to indigenous terminology and reunited with their original names; of particular note is the correct identification of garments currently thought to be men’s mantles (llaquta) as a substyle of women’s isallu. The basic chronological development of the various garment styles and substyles is outlined with the assistance of Carbon-14 dating, the identification of features restricted to specific historical periods, and comparisons with ponchos and miniature garments. The analysis focuses on the major changes in garment composition and significance between the Late Horizon and the period of Spanish colonization (referred to as the Colonial period) common to all types: more highly-colored compositions, the techniques of ll’uque and lluq’ita ch’ankha (multicolored thread), and the use of the new luxury materials of silk and silver-wrapped thread. By elucidating the reasons for these developments, this study offers new insights into the ways in which the Aymara weavers adapted their tradition of textile-based expression and communication to function in the new Spanish-dominated society.

Table of Contents

Introduction                                                                                                                      1


Chapter 1         Aymara Garment Construction, Composition, and Identification        27 


Chapter 2         Chronological Stylistic and Regional Development of Garments in

                         the pre-Hispanic and Colonial periods                                                 101


Chapter 3         Colonial Period Stylistic Innovations and

                         Compositional Significance                                                                 159


Conclusion                                                                                                                      221


Bibliography                                                                                                                   233

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