Factors affecting smoking initiation and cessation among Saudi women attending smoking cessation clinics Open Access

Al Nimr, Yumn (Spring 2018)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/nc580m68d?locale=en




Factors affecting smoking initiation and cessation among Saudi women attending

smoking cessation clinics


By Yumn Al-Nimr


Background: A description of factors that affect smoking initiation and cessation among Saudi Arabian women is unavailable. This study examines self-reported reasons for smoking initiation and willingness to quit smoking among Saudi women.

Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis on a sample of 2,190 female smokers attending smoking cessation clinics around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 

Results: Friends were the most commonly reported reason for initiating smoking, cited as a strong influence by 31.1% of all participants (CI: 29.2%–33.1%[GF1] ). Family members constituted the second most important reason for initiating smoking (8.3%, CI: 7.1%–9.5%). Combining all social influence-based reasons (friends, family, and social imitation), 42.3% of the sample (CI: 40.2%–44.4%) was socially influenced to begin smoking. Regarding factors related to unwillingness to quit, mood change was the most daunting factor to Saudi female smokers considering the cessation of smoking. Health was the most frequently stated reason Saudi women wanted to quit smoking (45.48%, CI: 43.38%–47.59%).

Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of social influence in driving smoking initiation among Saudi women. Future research efforts should utilize longitudinal methods to assess predictors of smoking cessation and the success of quit attempts.


Table of Contents

Introduction    7

Problem Statement      9

Research Question      10

Significance     10

A Review of the Literature     11

Global Perspective      11

Burden of Smoking     11

Overview of Tobacco Products          13

        Health Outcomes            14

        Smoking Initiation           15

        Smoking Cessation          16

Regional Perspective: The Middle East          18

National Perspective: Saudi Arabia    19

Manuscript     21

Abstract          21

Introduction    22

Methods         24

Study Design  24

Study Population        24

Data Collection           25

Study Variables           25

Statistical Analysis     27

  Results          28

Reason for Smoking Initiation            28

Willingness and Unwillingness to Quit Smoking        29

Discussion      29

Tables 32

Conclusion & Recommendation         38

Recommendation for Future Research            38

Recommendation for the National Smoking Cessation Program        38

Recommendation for Policy Makers  39

References       40


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