Semi-Volatile Organic Compound (SVOC) Detection in Residential Furniture: A Comparison of Dermal, Oral, and Inhalation Exposure Routes in Children Open Access

Laughlin, Scott Christian (2017)

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Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) are a group of organic compounds that include a variety of chemicals such as phthalates, pesticides, and flame retardants. SVOCs like flame retardants (FR) may be present in a residential environment due to their use in helping consumer products like furniture and electronics comply with safety regulations. In this project we investigated human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) and SVOCs from residential furniture through inhalation, dermal, and oral exposure routes. Two types of FR chemicals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and organophosphates (OP) were studied. A dataset of laboratory results, containing four types of sample media taken from 10 product samples and analyzed for the presence of FR chemicals, was reviewed. Oral, dermal, and inhalation risk assessment calculations for a 1-2 year old child were performed using parameters gathered from the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Exposure Factors Handbook, 2011. Results for calculated exposure were presented in nanograms per day (ng/day) in order to compare exposure routes. Calculated exposures ranged from less than 0.5 ng/day in some airborne samples to nearly 23,000 ng/day in one dermal sample. According to the calculations, the Filter Paper sample, as proxy for dermal exposure, consistently showed the highest exposure to SVOCs, and inhalation exposure samples were consistently a fraction of the calculated exposure totals of the oral or dermal samples. However, as absorption factors for chemicals encountered through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption were not applied to these data, we would expect the dermal exposures to be lower in practice, proportionally altering the results of this study.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

I. Introduction 1

Background 1

II. Methods 4

A. Sampling Conditions and Procedure 4

B. Exposure Calculations 5

III. Results 9

IV. Discussion 11

V. Conclusions and Recommendations 13

References 14

Figures and Tables 15

Appendices 18

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