An Investigation of Emotional Numbing in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Open Access
Evans, Amanda Pema Brown (2016)
Despite significant advances in empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), many PTSD sufferers do not fully remit. Research has increasingly focused on examining the role deficits in emotional functioning may play among those who develop chronic PTSD. Residual emotional numbing and associated functional impairment are commonly reported, yet emotional numbing remains poorly defined and poorly understood. Most studies have relied on ratings of three DSM-IV Cluster C numbing symptoms as the only measure, and very few published studies have reported on psychophysiological correlates of self-reported emotional numbing. The present study investigated correlates of emotional numbing within a sample of male veterans with trauma histories (n = 47) using a recently developed, more comprehensive measure of emotional numbing. Consistent with predictions, self-reported emotional numbing was associated with higher self-reports of attachment insecurity, relationship distress, and lower compassion for self and others. Contrary to predictions, emotional numbing was positively associated with heart rate variability and negatively associated with heart rate during resting baseline and presentation of emotional stimuli, indicating diminished physiological responding. Psychophysiological arousal and self-reported arousal were not associated with one another, and physiological arousal did not differ across conditions that involved presentation of positive and negative images. These results did not provide support for the prevailing notion that psychophysiological hyperreactivity characterizes PTSD samples. A secondary aim of the study was to investigate the credibility and acceptability of a compassion meditation intervention targeting emotional numbing symptoms in a subgroup of participants who reported a history of diagnosed PTSD and interest in receiving treatment for emotional numbing symptoms (n = 10). In this small pilot, veterans who completed Cognitively Based Compassion Training (CBCT) did not report increased subjective feelings of compassion for self and others, as had been hypothesized, but did report significantly decreased numbing and PTSD symptoms. Moreover, CBCT was rated as highly acceptable and useful, and drop out was low. Thus, further evaluation of the potential for compassion meditation to address emotional numbing is warranted.
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