Conditions, behaviors, and fecal contamination of nursery schools in four low and medium income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana Open Access

Natkin, Benjamin (2015)

Permanent URL:


While under five deaths due to diarrhea remain high in Africa, little is understood of the role of nurseries in the transmission of fecal pathogens. Nurseries in four neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana were selected for a mixed methods investigation of conditions and child behaviors that could affect exposure to fecal bacteria and the presence of E. coli on hands, surfaces and in water stored on site. A high ratio of children to teachers was noted as well as poor latrine conditions and a lack of water designated for hand washing. The large majority of children showed E. coli contamination on their hands, along with frequent contamination of surfaces such as chairs, toys, and food wrappers. Linear models between nursery conditions and level of hand contamination showed significant relationships for the ratio of children to teachers and the presence of feces on latrine floors or walls.

Table of Contents

Chapter I: Introduction 1

Context of Project 1

Problem Statement 2

Chapter II: Literature Review 3

Chapter III: Manuscript 16

Title 17

Contribution of Student 18

Abstract 19

Introduction 20

Methods 22

Results 25

Discussion 29

References 33

Tables and Figures 35

Chapter IV: Conclusions and Recommendations 38

References 40

Appendices 42

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
  • English
Research Field
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Partnering Agencies
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files