Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, and Risk for Prostate Cancer Open Access

Wang, Yueqing (2015)

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Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Smoking and alcohol drinking are considered as both the initiator and promoter of cancer carcinogenesis, however, their role in prostate cancer is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and alcohol drinking are associated with risk of incident prostate cancer overall and by tumor severity.

Methods: The data were analyzed from a case-control study of incident prostate cancer (n=112) and community-based controls (n=255) conducted in North Carolina between 1994 and 1996. A four- to five-hour study visit with multiple questionnaires was used to collect demographic, dietary, and lifestyle information from all participants. The cancer severity was categorized based on TNM stage. The assessment of smoking and alcohol drinking was based on both lifestyle and block food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratio (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

Results: There were no significant associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and overall incident prostate cancer. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a statistically non-significant higher risk of prostate cancer (multivariable OR=1.54, 95% CI: 0.62-3.82), but not former smokers (multivariable OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.56-1.73). Among former smokers, those who smoked for ≥ 25 years had a significantly lower risk of localized disease (multivariable ORlocalized=0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96); however, the sample size was relatively small for this analysis. Compared with non-alcohol drinkers, former alcohol drinkers had a statistically non-significant higher risk for localized and advanced prostate cancer (multivariable ORlocalized=1.61, 95% CI: 0.75-3.47; multivariable ORadvanced=1.55, 95%CI: 0.54-4.47, respectively); while current alcohol drinkers had a statistically non-significant higher risk for advanced prostate cancer (multivariable ORadvanced=1.40, 95%CI: 0.53-3.71).

Conclusion: Overall, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with risk for incident prostate cancer.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Background

Prostate Cancer Pathogenesis

Demographic Factors

Dietary Factors

Lifestyle Factors

Chapter 2: Manuscript Chapter


Material and Methodology



Chapter 3: Conclusions


Public Health Implications



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