The United States in Opposition: The United Nations, The Third World, and Changing American Visions of Global Order, 1970-1984. Open Access

Byrnes, Sean Thomas (2014)

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The United States in Opposition explores American reactions to hostile world opinion, as voiced in the United Nations by representatives of the Global South, from 1970 to 1984. In the wake of the Vietnam War, Americans not only suffered self-doubt at home but searing condemnation abroad - especially in the "third" or "underdeveloped" world - becoming a focal point for criticism of the prevailing international order. This study demonstrates how this challenge from the Global South had a significant impact on U.S. policy and politics - shaping, in particular, the rise of the "New Right" and "neo-liberal" visions of the world economy. As such, it integrates developments in American political and diplomatic history with the international history of what Vijay Prashad has called the "idea" of the Third World, a project for a more equitable world order originating in the anti-colonial movements of the Global South.

Table of Contents

Introduction: 1

From Delhi to Dallas

1: "Impossible to Impose an American Design:" 19

The Global South, the Nixon Administration, and the initial U.S. Retreat from Liberal World Order

2: "We Have Lost an Ideological Empire:" 58

The China Vote and Fears of American Decline

3: Breaking the "Unholy Alliance:" 115

The Oil Embargo, the NIEO, and Henry Kissinger's Battle Against the Third World

4: "Nobody's Punching Bag:" 154

Kissinger, the "Moynihan Effect" and the Popularity of "Giving Them Hell at the U.N."

5: "Joining the Jackals:" 214

The United Nations, "World Order" and the Failure of Carter's Demarche to Third World Opinion

6: A Reagan Revolution for the World: 251

The U.S., the Third World and the United Nations after 1981

Conclusion: 288

"Losing After You've Won"

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