A Program Gap Analysis OF Grow NYC's Greenmarket and Youthmarket Programs on Fruit and Vegetable Access Among Residents in East Harlem, Central Harlem, Central Brooklyn, North Brooklyn and the South Bronx Open Access

Truell, Jennifer Carter (2015)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/g158bh930?locale=en


The local food environment plays a significant role in the availability and accessibility of healthy food options, ultimately impacting the health and wellness of residents living in that neighborhood. Fruit and vegetable intake has been shown to have positive health benefits, including the provision of necessary vitamins, minerals and nutrients. Diets containing a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In New York City, a lack of access to, and affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables are the two most common reasons noted for reduced produce consumption among residents living in lower-income neighborhoods. It is often the case that in underserved neighborhoods, supermarkets and grocery stores are lacking, and fast food restaurants and small corner stores are plentiful, offering inexpensive foods that are in many cases, devoid of nutritional value. In some instances where healthier options are available, the cost might be prohibitive, and in turn could make inexpensive, lesser quality food a more economical option, to the detriment of one's health. GrowNYC's Greenmarket chain of farmers markets was established to help connect New Yorkers with fresh and affordable produce. While there has been significant growth in Greenmarket presence in some neighborhoods in New York City, the reality is that in several lower-income neighborhoods in New York City, Greenmarket presence is virtually nonexistent. This program Gap Analysis explored the current state of Greenmarket placement in five lower-income neighborhoods in New York City, and was underscored with key informant interviews with food justice/food access workers in the impacted neighborhoods. These findings provide a preliminary overview of current Greenmarket placement, and offers possible suggestions for taking tentative, yet actionable steps towards increasing Greenmarket presence in lower-income neighborhoods in New York City. The Key Informant interviews added an additional perspective from advocates involved in food justice, specifically on the challenges facing residents in lower-income neighborhoods in procuring fresh produce amid local food environments that are lacking healthful food options.

Table of Contents

Chapter I (Introduction) 1

Introduction and Rationale 1

Problem Statement 8

Race, Place and Class, and the Impact on Health 10

Purpose Statement 12

Methodological Approach 13

Definition of Terms 15

Chapter II (Review of the Literature) 17

Neighborhood Level Determinants Impacting Adverse Health Outcomes 20

New York City Health Indicator Information 37

Neighborhood Profiles 38

Chapter III (Methodology) 52

Rationale for Program Gap Analysis 52

Program Gap Analysis 53

Interviews with Key Informants 55

Limitations and Delimitations of This Research 60

Chapter IV (Results) 62

Summary of Program Gap Analysis Findings 62

Summary of Key Informant Interview Findings 68

Other Findings 75

Chapter V (Conclusions, Implications and Recommendations) 81

Summary of Study 81

Community-Level Recommendations 85

GrowNYC and Greenmarket Recommendations 86

Policy Recommendations 87

Conclusions 88

References 90

List of Appendices 97

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