The Association of Access to Resources in the Workplace During Menstruation on Individual Well-Being Among Adult, Working women in Nepal and Kenya Open Access

Datcher, Ivree (Spring 2023)

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Context: Menstrual health has been identified as a key component of sexual and reproductive health and is integral in achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals and addressing gender equality and human rights. Prior research shows that women spend many hours daily at the workplace, signifying the large impact the workplace can have on health. The increase in attention focused on menstruation and the menstrual needs of women, calls for researchers to further assess determinants that may be associated with outcomes like individual well-being that are related to menstrual experiences specific to the workplace.

Methodology: During the year 2021, 1220 females aged 18-53 were recruited in Nepal (n=479) and Kenya (n=741) to complete in-person surveys to assess various menstruation-related individual, workplace, and biological determinants and their association with individual, workplace, and biological outcomes. This secondary analysis includes 1033 of the primary research respondents (Kenya: 611; Nepal: 422) to assess if individual and workplace determinants are associated with individual wellbeing. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted using SAS 9.4.

Results: 34% (n=350) of respondents reported poor individual wellbeing overall. Poor individual well-being among women in Nepal was 20% (n=85) and 43% (n=265) among women in Kenya. The physical environment and individual well-being was significantly associated in the overall sample in Nepal, but the association was not significant in Kenya. Outcomes among working women in Nepal were overall better than outcomes among working women in Kenya.

Discussion: Findings suggest that having access to things like an optimal physical workplace environment, resources available at the workplace, and access to individual level resources improve individual wellbeing overall. Based on these findings, it is recommended to focus on increasing access to workplace menstrual materials, environmental improvements and individual menstrual materials to improve individual wellbeing among working menstruators in Nepal and Kenya.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Introduction and Rationale 1

Purpose Statement 2

The aims of this analysis are: 2

Definition of Terms 4

Chapter 2: Comprehensive Review of Literature 5

Importance of Menstruation Research Among Adult Women 5

Menstruation Challenges 6

Access to Resources 10

Menstruation Among Working Menstruators 17

Understanding the Associations Between Individual and Workplace Determinants and Outcomes 17

Chapter 3: Methods and Results 19

Methods 19

Results 19

Chapter 4: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations 39

Discussion 39

References 43

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