Farming and Risk for Prostate Cancer: Results from a Pilot Case-control Study Open Access

Fu, Xiao (2016)

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Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer in men across the world. It has been hypothesized that farmers may be of higher risk for prostate cancer because of their various occupation-related exposures; however, epidemiologic findings regarding this have been inconsistent. To investigate an association of farming with prostate cancer risk, we analyzed data from a previously conducted, community-based case-control study with 113 newly diagnosed incident prostate cancer cases and 258 age and race frequency-matched controls in the Piedmont Triad area of North Carolina from 1994 to 1996. All participants were interviewed, completed questionnaires, and provided blood and urine samples at a study visit. Visits for cases were within two weeks of diagnosis and prior to initiation of any treatment. The estimated adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the farmer-prostate cancer association was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97 - 2.73), for advanced prostate cancer it was 4.77 (95% CI 1.56 - 14.58), and for those less than 67 years of age it was 2.69 (95% CI 1.24 - 5.84). The findings from this pilot study suggest that farmers may be at higher risk for prostate cancer, perhaps especially for more advanced or aggressive disease.

Table of Contents

I. Abstract

II. Chapter I -- Background

A. Descriptive epidemiology

B. Analytical observational epidemiology

1. A summary of analytical observational epidemiological studies

2. Risk factors being found

1.1 Age

1.2 Race

1.3 Family history

1.4 Diet and nutrition

a. Fat

b. Vitamin

1.5 Lifestyle

a. Alcohol use

b. Cigarette smoking

c. Exercise

1.6 Infection and inflammation

1.7 Endocrine factors

1.8 Other

C. Clinical trials

D. Molecular basis of prostate cancer

E. Screening of prostate cancer

F. Farming and prostate cancer

1. Descriptive epidemiology among farmers:

incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in farmers compared to non-farmers

2. Possible risk factors for prostate cancer especially among farmers

1.1 Pesticides exposure

1.2 Cadmium exposure

1.3 Other exposure

1.4 Harmful lifestyle

3. Other possible reasons

4. Conclusions about farming and prostate cancer: what's known and what's unknown?

G. Introduction of the study purpose

III. Chapter II - Manuscript chapter

IV. Chapter III - Public Health Implications and possible future directions

V. Appendices and Bibliography

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