Assessing the Health Effects of Air Pollution on High School Athletes Open Access

Gao, Shiwei (2015)

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Objective: The study aimed to investigate the effect of five air pollutants-ozone, PM2.5, black carbon, particles, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on oxidative stress of high school athletes before and after physical activity and training.

Methods: 125 high school athletes from two high schools in Atlanta metropolitan area were included, and exhale breath condensate samples were collected before and after physical activity. Air pollutants concentrations were measured on site or collected from ground monitoring database during the training. The percentage concentration of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) pair in the breath condensate samples before and after training was measured using HPLC. Linear mixed model is used to assess the association between air pollutant exposure and changes in glutathione biomarker.

Results: In the linear mixed model, ozone exposure is significantly associated with the difference in percentage change of GSSG (P-value = 0.023). Four other pollutants did not significantly affect the percentage change of GSSG (P-value > 0.05). Age was also identified as a factor associated with GSSG level.

Conclusion: Ozone exposure has a significant effect on oxidative stress during physical activity. Lowering the pollutant exposure, such as conduct indoor exercise instead of outdoor exercise, would help protect young athletes from ozone.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Methods 2

Study design 2

Ambient and indoor air pollutants measurement 3

GSH and GSSG measurements 3

The redox potential calculations 4

Statistical analysis 4

Results 5

Air pollutants concentration 5

Air pollutants exposure 7

Difference in GSSG percentage change 9

Linear mixed model 10

Discussion 12

References 14

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