Hypertension Obesity Prediabetes in Nicaragua Group (HOPING), A Study of Prevalence of Prediabetes, Diabetes, and Other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Los Robles, Nicaragua Open Access

Young, Brittany (Fall 2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/8910jt57v?locale=en



To estimate the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, hypertension, and obesity in Los Robles, Nicaragua.


Emory University (Atlanta, GA, USA) and the University of Calgary (Calgary, Canada) combined their studies to recruit 250 subjects through a convenience sample from all 10 neighborhoods in Los Robles, Nicaragua, in order to complete a comprehensive health survey and collect anthropometric measurements, fasting capillary glucose (FCG), and postprandial capillary glucose (PCG) levels on the subjects. Diabetes was defined as the fasting sample value above 125 mg/dl taken prior to consumption of 50g oral glucose drink or the post-challenge sample above 199 mg/dl taken after consumption of 50g oral glucose drink. Prediabetes was defined by two values, either the Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) value, which was the fasting sample between 100-125 mg/dl taken prior to consumption of 50g oral glucose drink, or the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), which was the post-challenge sample between 140-199 mg/dl taken after consumption of 50g oral glucose drink. Obesity was defined using the WHO Body Mass Index (BMI) classifications, identifying underweight as BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight as BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2, overweight as BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 and obese as BMI greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2.  Hypertension was defined using the CDC hypertension guidelines, classifying normal as Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) between 90-119 mmHg and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) between 60-79 mmHg, pre-hypertension as SBP between 120-139 mmHg or DBP between 80-89 mmHg, stage 1 hypertension as SBP between 140-159 mmHg or DBP between 90-99 mmHg, and stage 2 hypertension as SBP greater than or equal to 160 mmHg or DBP greater than or equal to 100 mmHg. We used SAS software to analyze the means and confidence intervals of the data collected.


The diabetes prevalence calculated from the FCG was 9.4% and from the PCG was 3.62%. The prevalence of prediabetes calculated from FCG was 55.8% and from PCG was 26.2%. The majority of the sample population –almost 67% of total subjects – was either overweight or obese and the hypertension was noted in 4%.


This study measured prevalence of prediabetes, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in a population that has yet to be studied.  The research provides a framework for further research to be done in assessing diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in Nicaragua and Latin America.

Table of Contents

Introduction                         Page 7

Materials and Methods         Page 9

Outcomes Examined             Page 10

Variable Definitions            Page 11

Results                                 Page 12

Discussion                             Page 13

Future Directions                Page 15

References                           Page 17

Table 1                                 Page 20

Table 2                                 Page 21

Table 3                                  Page 22

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