Gender and Geographic Influence on Racial Disparity in Bladder Cancer Survival among Asian Groups in the US Open Access

Wang, Xi (2013)

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Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare bladder cancer survival patterns among Asian groups and to evaluate gender and geographic differences in bladder cancer survival between these populations in an effort to better understand any potential disparities that may exist.

Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute between 2000 and 2008, Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier's estimates were used to study differences in bladder cancer survival between selected Asian groups, adjusting for stage, age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, radiation treatment and grade.

Results: There are significant differences in observed bladder cancer survival among Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese patients (p=0.033). Chinese and Korean bladder cancer patients have lower risk of mortality than Filipino patients among Asian groups. Younger patients, who had surgery treatment, had lower risk of bladder cancer mortality. There is no gender and geographic influence on racial disparity in bladder cancer survival among Asian groups in the US.

Conclusions: Chinese and Korean bladder cancer patients have a higher 5-year survival in the Asian population. No gender or geographic differences in survival existed among the different Asian race groups.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

2 Background -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.1 Risk Factors ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1

1.2 Bladder Cancer Mortality and Survival ----------------------------------- 2

1.3 Racial Differences in Survival ------------------------------------------- 3

1.4 Geographic Differences in Survival --------------------------------------- 4

3 Methods ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6

3.1 Study population ----------------------------------------------------------- 6

3.2 Survival time ------------------------------------------------------------ 7

3.3 Covariate Definitions ---------------------------------------------------- 7

3.4 Statistical Analyses ------------------------------------------------------ 8

4 Results ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

4.1 Cohort demographics ----------------------------------------------------- 9

4.2 Tumor characteristics ---------------------------------------------------- 9

4.3 Survival time -------------------------------------------------------------- 10

4.4 Predictors of Bladder Cancer mortality -------------------------------- 11

5 Discussions ------------------------------------------------------------------ 11

6 Strengths and Weakness ------------------------------------------------ 13

7 Future directions ---------------------------------------------------------- 14

8 Tables ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15

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