Measuring Exposure and Inhaled Dose of PM and Black Carbon among Adolescents Engaged in Physical Activity Open Access

Fanning-Dowdell, Gabrielle Gideon (2013)

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Athletes who engage in physical activity in areas of high exposure are at increased risk of high doses of ultrafine particulate matter and black carbon due to increases in the rate and depth of ventilation that occur. The objectives of this study were to estimate exposure and inhaled dose of ambient air pollution at two high schools in Atlanta during the hours when students are engaged in physical activity in indoor and outdoor settings and to examine the association between dose and activity level. The two high schools chosen included one in a suburban setting surrounded by forest and the other was in an urban setting located near a major highway and a freight-rail hub.

Data was collected in seven sampling sessions over a period of four months. The estimated dose of inhaled ultrafine particulate matter and black carbon were calculated based on heart rate, spriometric, and air quality measurements taken for each participant during the sampling sessions. ANOVA and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine how cumulative particle dose varied by study population, location of the physical activity and the sport being played. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between measured physical activity and cumulative inhaled particle dose.

The cumulative particle dose for athletes practicing indoors was significantly lower than it was for athletes practicing outdoors (p<0.0001). There was not a significant difference in cumulative dose between sports that were played in the same environment. There was however a significantly higher inhaled cumulative dose for athletes practicing indoors at the urban school than the suburban school. When controlled for other factors including exposure time, ambient particle concentration and FVC physical activity was found to have a significant effect on cumulative particle dose of 11.55% for each .01 increase in physical activity(p<0.0001).

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introduction and Rationale. 1

Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Ultrafine Particulate Matter. 1

Contributions of high traffic volume. 2

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 3

Black Carbon.. 4

Nitrogen Oxides. 4

Particle Inhalation and Deposition during Exercise. 4

Potential Health Effects. 5

Methods. 6

Specific Aims. 6

Expected Outcomes. 6

Site Selection.. 6

Subject Recruitment. 6

Health and Demographic Questionnaire. 7

Outdoor Sampling. 7

Indoor Sampling. 7

Air Quality Measures. 8

Health Measures. 8

Physical Activity Level 9

Estimation of Dose. 9

Results. 13

Study Population Characteristics. 13

Sampling Sessions. 14

Air Quality.. 15

Trends in Cumulative Inhaled Particle Dose. 16

Relationship between Activity and Inhaled Particle Dose. 17

Discussion.. 18

Relationship between Physical Activity and Inhaled Particle Dose. 18

Cumulative Inhaled Dose. 19

Limitations: 20

Conclusions. 22

References. 22

Appendix. 25

Table 1: Study Population Summary Statistics. 25

Table 2: Air Quality Summary Statistics. 26

Table 3: Sampling Sessions. 27

Table 4: Comparisons of Cumulative Dose Across Groups. 28

Table 5: Linear Regression Results. 29

Figure 1: Variation in Estimates Particle Dose over Time. 30

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